2019年国民经济和社会发展计划报告(全文)
                                                                                                                                                                            Full text: Report on China's economic, social development plan (2019)

                                                                                                                                                                             
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                                                                                                                                                                            调整字号大小:
                                                                                                                                                                            3月5日,第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。这是代表高唱国歌。[新华社 庞兴雷 摄]
                                                                                                                                                                            Deputies to the 13th National People's Congress (NPC) sing the national anthem at the opening meeting of the second session of the 13th NPC at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, March 5, 2019. (Xinhua/Pang Xinglei)


                                                                                                                                                                            关于2018年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2019年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

                                                                                                                                                                            ——2019年3月5日在第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议上

                                                                                                                                                                            国家发展和改革委员会



                                                                                                                                                                            REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2018 PLAN FOR NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ON THE 2019 DRAFT PLAN FOR NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 

                                                                                                                                                                            Delivered at the Second Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on March 5, 2019 

                                                                                                                                                                            National Development and Reform Commission


                                                                                                                                                                            各位代表:



                                                                                                                                                                            Esteemed Deputies,


                                                                                                                                                                            受国务院委托,现将2018年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2019年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十三届全国人大二次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。



                                                                                                                                                                            The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to deliver this report on the implementation of the 2018 plan and on the 2019 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Second Session of the 13th National People's Congress (NPC) for your deliberation. It also invites comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).


                                                                                                                                                                            一、2018年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况



                                                                                                                                                                            I. Implementation of the 2018 Plan for National Economic and Social Development


                                                                                                                                                                            2018年,面对错综复杂的国际环境和艰巨繁重的国内改革发展稳定任务,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各地区各部门以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,增强“四个意识”,坚定“四个自信”,做到“两个维护”,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,贯彻新发展理念,落实高质量发展要求,以供给侧结构性改革为主线,认真执行十三届全国人大一次会议审议批准的《政府工作报告》、2018年国民经济和社会发展计划,落实全国人大财政经济委员会的审查意见、十三届全国人大常委会第七次会议对“十三五”规划《纲要》实施中期评估报告的审议意见等,大力推进市场化改革、高水平开放,大力推进现代化经济体系建设,坚决打好防范化解重大风险、精准脱贫、污染防治三大攻坚战,有效应对外部环境深刻变化,统筹稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险,着力做好稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期工作,经济保持总体平稳、稳中有进,全年经济社会发展主要目标任务较好完成,计划执行情况总体良好。



                                                                                                                                                                            In 2018, we were confronted with a complex and volatile environment internationally and formidable tasks in promoting reform, development, and stability at home. Under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all regions and departments fully implemented the guiding principles of the 19th CPC National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee. We strengthened our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment; increased our confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and resolutely upheld General Secretary Xi Jinping's core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and resolutely upheld the Party Central Committee's authority and its centralized, unified leadership. 


                                                                                                                                                                            In accordance with the decisions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, we pursued coordinated implementation of the five-sphere integrated plan and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. We stayed committed to the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, followed the new development philosophy, fulfilled the requirement for high-quality development, and took supply-side structural reform as our main task. We implemented the Report on the Work of the Government and the 2018 Plan for National Economic and Social Development approved at the First Session of the 13th NPC, and adopted the suggestions from the review of the 2018 Plan by the NPC Financial and Economic Affairs Committee, as well as those put forth at the 13th NPC Standing Committee's Seventh Session regarding the midterm assessment report on the implementation of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020). 


                                                                                                                                                                            We focused on promoting market-oriented reforms and high-standard opening up, worked hard to develop a modernized economy, and delivered solid progress in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution. We responded effectively to major changes in the external environment, and took coordinated steps to achieve steady growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risk. We worked to ensure stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations. The economy maintained general stability and registered good progress, the main targets and tasks in economic and social development for the year were accomplished, and implementation of the 2018 Plan was successful overall.


                                                                                                                                                                            (一)着力创新和完善宏观调控,经济运行保持在合理区间。更好发挥国家发展规划的战略导向作用,保持宏观经济政策的连续性和稳定性,坚决不搞“大水漫灌”式强刺激,在区间调控的基础上加强定向调控、精准调控、相机调控,主动预调微调、强化政策协同、做好预期管理,稳妥应对中美经贸摩擦,保持了经济平稳健康发展。



                                                                                                                                                                            1. We employed new and improved methods of macro regulation and ensured major economic indicators stayed within an appropriate range.


                                                                                                                                                                            We gave better play to the guiding role of national development plans to ensure continuity and stability between macroeconomic policies. We refrained from resorting to a deluge of strong stimulus policies. Instead, we strengthened targeted, precision, and well-timed regulation on the basis of range-based regulation. We took proactive measures to carry out anticipatory adjustments and fine-tuning, strengthened coordination between macroeconomic policies, and better managed expectations. We appropriately handled economic and trade friction between China and the US. With these efforts, we were able to maintain stable and sound economic development.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是宏观调控目标较好完成。国内生产总值达到90.03万亿元,增长6.6%,符合预期目标。实施更加积极的就业政策,建立完善稳就业应急机制,创新创业带动就业的作用进一步增强,全年城镇新增就业1361万人,全国城镇调查失业率稳定在5%左右的较低水平。加强价格监测分析预警调控,做好市场保供稳价工作,全年居民消费价格温和上涨2.1%。国际收支基本平衡,外汇储备稳定在3万亿美元以上。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) Macro-regulation targets were achieved.


                                                                                                                                                                            China's gross domestic product (GDP) reached 90.03 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.6%, which was in line with the projected target. We implemented a more proactive employment policy, and established a sound emergency response mechanism to keep employment stable. More jobs were created through innovation and business startups. A total of 13.61 million urban jobs were added over the year, and the survey-based urban unemployment rate was kept at a relatively low level of about 5%. For prices we strengthened monitoring, analysis, early warning, and regulation, and ensured market supply and price levels remained stable. The consumer price index (CPI) registered a moderate rise of 2.1% for the year. A basic equilibrium was kept in the balance of payments and foreign exchange reserves were stable at over US$ 3 trillion.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是财政金融运行基本平稳。积极的财政政策聚力增效,减税降费力度进一步加大,财政支出结构持续优化,有力保障民生等重点领域资金需求。全国一般公共预算收入18.34万亿元,增长6.2%;全国一般公共预算支出22.09万亿元,增长8.7%;财政赤字2.38万亿元,与预算持平。稳健的货币政策保持中性,通过差别化准备金、差异化信贷等政策,引导资金更多投向民营企业和小微企业等实体经济。国家融资担保基金设立运作。年末广义货币(M2)余额增长8.1%。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Fiscal and financial indicators were stable.


                                                                                                                                                                            We implemented a proactive fiscal policy with greater intensity and enhanced its performance. Further steps were taken to cut taxes and fees, and efforts to improve the composition of government spending continued, to ensure funding for major areas such as the improvement of living standards. Revenue in the general public budget was 18.34 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.2%; expenditure totaled 22.09 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.7%; and the fiscal deficit was 2.38 trillion yuan, the same as the budgeted figure. In monetary policy, a prudent and neutral stance was maintained, and we used policies of differentiated reserve ratios and differentiated credit to guide more funding toward private enterprises and small and micro businesses in the real economy. The national financing guaranty fund was put into operation. At the end of 2018, growth in the balance of the M2 money supply was 8.1%.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是投资补短板力度持续加大。充分发挥中央预算内投资对优化供给结构的引导带动作用,建立加大基础设施领域补短板力度协调机制,加强重大项目储备,统筹推进重大基础设施规划建设,铁路营业里程超过13.1万公里,其中高速铁路超过2.9万公里;高速公路总里程达到14.3万公里。促进民间投资持续健康发展,在铁路、民航、油气、电信等领域向民间资本推出一批有吸引力的项目,规范有序推广政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式。固定资产投资(不含农户)增长5.9%,其中民间投资增长8.7%。投资结构持续优化,高技术制造业、装备制造业投资分别增长16.1%和11.1%。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) Investment in areas of weakness continued to increase.


                                                                                                                                                                            We enabled investment from the central government budget to play a leading role in improving the supply structure. We established a mechanism to strengthen coordination in shoring up infrastructure weaknesses, added to the major project reserve, and coordinated the planning and construction of major infrastructure projects. The length of in-service railways exceeded 131,000 kilometers, including more than 29,000 kilometers of high-speed rail lines. The total length of expressways now stands at 143,000 kilometers. To encourage sustainable and healthy private investment, we rolled out a number of attractive projects in sectors like rail, civil aviation, oil and natural gas, and telecommunications, and the public-private partnership (PPP) model was extended to more areas in a well-regulated and orderly way. Total fixed-asset investment (excluding rural households) increased by 5.9%, which includes an 8.7% increase in private investment. There were continuous improvements in the composition of investment, with investment in high-tech manufacturing and equipment manufacturing growing 16.1% and 11.1% respectively.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是消费提质扩容积极推进。完善促进消费体制机制进一步激发居民消费潜力的若干意见和三年实施方案出台实施,放心消费创新活动深入推进,消费环境持续优化。降低药品、汽车、日用消费品等进口关税,调整完善新能源汽车推广应用财政补贴政策。加快提升新型信息产品供给体系质量,信息消费保持快速增长。海南省建设国际旅游消费中心的实施方案、促进乡村旅游发展提质升级行动方案(2018年-2020年)印发实施,引导城乡居民扩大文化消费试点工作持续推进,上千家重点国有景区门票价格下降,全国家政培训提升行动启动,相关领域消费潜力进一步释放,全年社会消费品零售总额增长9%。消费对经济增长拉动作用增强,最终消费支出贡献率提高到76.2%。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) Strong improvements in the quality and scale of consumption were achieved.


                                                                                                                                                                            The Guidelines on Improving Consumption-Promoting Systems and Mechanisms to Unleash the Potential of Personal Consumption were implemented, along with a three-year action plan. The campaign to create a worry-free atmosphere for consumers yielded further progress and helped improve the consumption environment. We lowered import tariffs on medicines, automobiles, and some non-durable consumer goods, and improved government subsidy policies for promoting the use of new-energy vehicles (NEVs). We improved the supply system for new types of information products at a faster pace and maintained rapid growth in information consumption. We unveiled and put in motion the Implementation Plan on Making Hainan an International Hotspot for Tourism and Shopping and the Action Plan on Improving and Upgrading Rural Tourism (2018-2020). Trials to boost cultural consumption among urban and rural residents continued, over 1,000 key state tourist sites cut their ticket prices, and a national training program was launched in the domestic services sector, thus further unleashing the potential for consumption in relevant areas. Total annual retail sales of consumer goods rose 9%. With a contribution of 76.2% of growth, consumption is playing a much bigger role in driving the economy.


                                                                                                                                                                            (二)供给侧结构性改革深入推进,高质量发展取得积极进展。着力进行推动高质量发展的顶层设计,制定实施推动高质量发展的意见,推动高质量发展的制度体系逐步建立。扎实推进供给侧结构性改革,以“破、立、降”为主攻方向,持续改善供给结构,发展质量效益稳步提升。



                                                                                                                                                                            2. We steadily advanced supply-side structural reform and made strong progress toward high-quality development.


                                                                                                                                                                            We focused on top-level planning to promote high-quality development. We implemented the Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development, and took gradual steps toward establishing an institutional system for high-quality development. We continued to make solid progress in supply-side structural reform. With the focus on cutting ineffective supply, fostering new growth drivers, and reducing costs in the real economy, we saw yet further improvements in the composition of supply and sustained increases in the quality and efficiency of development.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是去产能工作扎实开展。结构性去产能、系统性优产能持续推进,压减粗钢产能3500万吨以上、退出煤炭落后产能2.7亿吨,均提前两年完成“十三五”目标任务,一大批“散乱污”企业出清,工业产能利用率处在较高水平。进一步做好“僵尸企业”及去产能企业债务处置工作,稳妥推进去产能职工安置,转岗再就业工作平稳有序进行。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) Solid progress was achieved in cutting overcapacity.


                                                                                                                                                                            Our efforts to cut overcapacity through structural adjustments and improvements continued. We cut production capacity by over 35 million metric tons of crude steel and 270 million metric tons of coal, thus achieving the targets for steel and coal overcapacity cuts in the 13th Five-Year Plan two years ahead of schedule. A large number of small, poorly-managed, and heavily-polluting enterprises were closed down, and a relatively high rate of industrial capacity utilization was maintained. Further progress was made in handling the debts of "zombie enterprises" and enterprises with excess capacity, and proper steps were taken to help workers displaced due to overcapacity cuts, ensuring they were resettled to new positions or found new employment in a smooth and orderly fashion.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是振兴实体经济迈出新步伐。制造强国建设持续推进,工业增加值突破30万亿元。促进首台(套)重大技术装备示范应用的意见印发实施,关键核心技术攻关加快开展。增强制造业核心竞争力三年行动计划(2018-2020年)、工业互联网发展行动计划(2018-2020年)深入实施,推动互联网、大数据、人工智能和实体经济深度融合,推进工业互联网+智能制造集成应用示范,轨道交通、高端医疗器械、工业机器人等制造业重点领域关键技术加快突破并实现产业化。新一轮技术改造升级工程组织实施,高端装备、智能制造、新材料等重点领域技术改造加快推进。质量强国战略深入实施,标准质量品牌建设持续加强。国家物流枢纽布局和建设规划印发实施。服务业创新发展大纲深入落实,服务质量提升专项行动加快推进,服务业综合改革试点深入开展。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) New strides were taken in revitalizing the real economy.


                                                                                                                                                                            As progress continued in building China into a manufacturer of quality, the total value-added of industry broke the 30-trillion-yuan mark. We promulgated the Guidelines on Promoting the Demonstration and Application of Newly-Developed Major Technological Equipment, and stepped up efforts to make breakthroughs in a number of core and key technologies. We moved forward with the implementation of the Three-Year Action Plan on Enhancing Core Competitiveness in the Manufacturing Sector (2018-2020) and the Action Plan on Developing the Industrial Internet (2018-2020). We promoted the in-depth integration of the internet, big data, and artificial intelligence (AI) into the real economy, and carried out demonstration projects for integrated applications of the industrial internet plus smart manufacturing. Breakthroughs were made at a faster pace in core technologies in key areas such as rail transit, high-end medical appliances, and industrial robots, and these have been successfully applied to industry. We carried out a new round of technology transformation and upgrading projects, and accelerated technology transformations in major areas such as high-end equipment, smart manufacturing, and new materials. Further strides were taken in the strategy to make China a country strong on quality, and our work on strengthening quality, standards, and brands was intensified. We issued the Plan on the Layout and Development of National Logistics Hubs. In the services sector, we continued implementing the guidelines on innovation-driven development, carried out dedicated campaigns to raise quality, and conducted trials of integrated reform.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是降成本工作持续推进。大力实施减税降费,全年为企业和个人减负约1.3万亿元。制造业等行业增值税税率从17%降至16%,交通运输、邮政、建筑、基础电信服务等行业及农产品等货物的增值税税率从11%降至10%,提高小规模纳税人年销售额标准,研发费用加计扣除比例提高到75%的政策扩大至所有企业,金融机构免征增值税贷款单户授信额度提高到1000万元。降低、停征一批行政事业性收费和政府性基金。延长阶段性降低社会保险费率和企业住房公积金缴存比例政策期限,清理规范经营服务性收费。大力推动降低用能、物流等成本,市场化交易电量比重进一步提高,全国一般工商业电价平均降低10%的目标超额完成,对挂车减半征收车辆购置税,扩大高速公路差异化收费试点。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) Work on bringing down costs continued.


                                                                                                                                                                            We stepped up efforts to reduce taxes and fees, helping ease the burden on enterprises and individuals by about 1.3 trillion yuan for the year. The rates of value added tax (VAT) were lowered from 17% to 16% in manufacturing and some other industries, and from 11% to 10% in industries such as transportation, postal services, construction, and basic telecommunications services and on goods such as agricultural products. The annual sales threshold for small-scale taxpayers was raised. The policy of a 75% tax deduction for research and development (R&D) expenses was extended to cover all enterprises. Financial institutions' credit line threshold for VAT exemption rose to 10 million yuan. We reduced or abolished a range of government administrative fees and government-managed funds. We continued the policy of reducing businesses' contributions to social insurance schemes and the housing provident fund, and overhauled and standardized business service fees. We took strong steps to lower energy and logistics costs, and continued to raise the proportion of market-based electricity transactions. The target to cut the price of electricity for general industrial and commercial businesses by an average of 10% was surpassed. Purchase tax on trailers was halved, and the policy of differentiated tolls was extended to cover more expressways.


                                                                                                                                                                            (三)扎实打好三大攻坚战,重点任务取得积极进展。制定三大攻坚战行动方案,依法依规有序实施,金融治理效果明显,脱贫攻坚完成年度目标,生态环境状况明显好转。



                                                                                                                                                                            3. We made solid progress in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, and yielded positive results in key tasks.


                                                                                                                                                                            We formulated an action plan for winning the three critical battles, for which implementation has proceeded as planned and in accordance with laws and regulations. We scored notable achievements in improving financial governance, hit our poverty alleviation targets for the year, and secured fresh progress in improving the environment.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是重大风险总体可控。宏观杠杆率过快增长势头得到有效遏制,金融市场总体平稳,人民币汇率保持合理稳定,市场约束逐步增强,审慎经营理念得到强化,金融监管制度进一步完善,金融乱象整治取得阶段性成效。稳步推进外债登记制管理改革,有效防范外债风险。重点城市新建商品住宅销售价格上涨态势基本得到控制,因地制宜调整完善棚户区改造的货币化安置政策。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) Major risks were manageable on the whole. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We have curbed excessively rapid growth of the macro-leverage ratio and maintained general stability in the financial market. The RMB exchange rate has remained generally stable at an appropriate level. Market restraints have been gradually enhanced, and the concept of prudent business operations has taken stronger root. Further improvements were made in financial regulation mechanisms, and initial success was achieved in addressing acute problems in the financial sector. We moved forward with reforms to improve the management system for foreign-debt registration and effectively guarded against foreign debt risks. The growth of commodity housing prices in major cities was basically brought under control, and the policy of providing monetary compensation to people displaced by the rebuilding of run-down urban areas was improved according to local circumstances.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是精准扶贫精准脱贫有力推进。进一步加大对“三区三州”等深度贫困地区和特殊贫困群体的帮扶力度,易地扶贫搬迁、以工代赈等重点任务扎实推进,产业、就业、教育、健康、生态、金融、网络、文化和旅游等扶贫工作持续深化,贫困地区自我发展能力不断增强。农村贫困人口脱贫1386万人,280万人易地扶贫搬迁建设任务顺利完成,帮扶贫困劳动力实现就业388万人。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Targeted poverty alleviation registered strong progress.


                                                                                                                                                                            We stepped up support and assistance to particular groups affected by poverty and to extremely poor areas, including the three regions and three prefectures. We made solid progress in relocating people from inhospitable areas and implementing work-relief programs. We stepped up initiatives to alleviate poverty through the development of local industries, employment, education, healthcare services, culture, tourism, and the internet, as well as the provision of ecological conservation subsidies and financial support. These efforts have enabled poor areas to boost their capacity for self-sufficient development. Over the year, 13.86 million people in rural areas were lifted out of poverty, our target of relocating 2.8 million people from inhospitable areas was achieved, and we helped 3.88 million people in poverty find jobs.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是污染防治攻坚战取得重大进展。深入贯彻习近平生态文明思想和全国生态环境保护大会精神,全面加强生态环境保护的顶层设计进一步完善,中央生态环境保护督察“回头看”有序开展,河长制湖长制全面建立,国家公园体制试点稳步推进。蓝天、碧水、净土保卫战全面推进,打赢蓝天保卫战三年行动计划等出台实施,细颗粒物(PM2.5)未达标地级及以上城市年均浓度下降10.4%,水、土壤污染防治行动深入开展,主要污染物排放总量和单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放量进一步下降。坚定不移推进禁止洋垃圾入境,全国固体废物进口总量比上年减少46.5%。加快推进垃圾分类处理。初步划定京津冀等15个省份生态保护红线,山西等16个省份基本形成划定方案。深化生态环境保护综合行政执法改革的指导意见印发实施。重大生态保护修复工程有序推进。实施退耕还林还草1238万亩,实施草原围栏、退化草原改良等退牧还草工程3700多万亩。加强滨海湿地保护、严格管控围填海。市场化、多元化生态保护补偿机制建设积极推进,创新和完善促进绿色发展价格机制的意见出台实施。北方地区冬季清洁取暖工作稳妥推进,天然气产供储销体系建设取得积极进展。重点地区煤炭消费减量替代持续推进,用能权交易试点启动实施,提前两年完成燃煤电厂超低排放和节能改造总量目标任务,清洁能源消纳长效机制建设和运行调节加强,弃电量和弃电率实现“双降”,单位国内生产总值能耗下降3.1%。全国碳排放权交易市场建设稳步推进。推动联合国气候变化大会取得积极成果,为《巴黎协定》实施细则的通过发挥重要作用。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) Major progress was made in the critical battle against pollution.


                                                                                                                                                                            Putting into practice Xi Jinping's thinking on promoting ecological progress and the principles from the national conference on ecological and environmental protection, we improved top-level planning for strengthening ecological and environmental protection across the board. Follow-up environmental inspections were carried out by the central government as planned, the river chief and lake chief systems came into effect nationwide, and trials of the national park system registered steady progress. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We launched campaigns to protect our blue skies, clear waters, and clean lands across the country and began implementing the Three-Year Action Plan for Keeping Our Skies Blue. The annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased by 10.4% in the cities at and above prefecture level that fell short of the national standards, and further steps were taken to address water and soil pollution. Total emissions of major pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP continued to fall. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We took resolute measures to block illegal waste imports, and achieved a reduction of 46.5% in solid waste imports on the previous year. Work on the sorted treatment of waste made rapid progress. We completed the first steps in setting standards for enforcing ecological-conservation red lines in 15 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, including Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, and basically completed plans for 16 others including Shanxi. We formulated the guidelines on deepening reforms for coordinated administrative law enforcement to protect ecosystems and the environment. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We made steady progress in major ecological conservation and restoration projects. We returned more than 825,333 hectares of marginal farmland to forest or grassland, and undertook projects to return 2.47 million hectares of grazing land to grassland, which involved constructing grassland fencing and improving the condition of degraded grasslands. We did more to protect coastal wetlands and strictly controlled and regulated coastal reclamation activities. Progress was made in establishing market-based mechanisms for diversified ecological compensation and the Guidelines on Innovating and Improving Pricing Mechanisms for Promoting Green Development were issued for implementation.


                                                                                                                                                                            We steadily moved forward with the work to adopt clean energy sources for winter heating in northern China, and achieved progress in building systems for natural gas production, supply, reserve, and sale. We continued working to cut coal consumption and to replace coal with alternative energy in key areas, and launched trials on trading energy consumption rights. The total volume targets for upgrading coal-burning power plants nationwide to achieve ultra-low emissions and energy efficiency were completed two years ahead of schedule. We made moves to strengthen the development and regulation of the long-term mechanism for absorbing clean energy into power grids, and delivered a reduction in both the amount and ratio of idle power and a decrease of 3.1% in energy consumption per unit of GDP. Steady progress was made in establishing a national market for trading carbon emission rights.


                                                                                                                                                                            On the international stage, China worked to bring about positive results at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poland, and made an important contribution to ensuring the adoption of the Paris Agreement's implementation guidelines.


                                                                                                                                                                            (四)全面实施创新驱动发展战略,创新创业活力持续释放。强化创新第一动力作用,科技体制改革取得实质性突破,国家创新体系效能大幅提升,高技术产业和战略性新兴产业实现较快发展,“互联网+”行动深入推进,新动能培育取得积极进展,创新创业水平进一步提高,创新型国家建设迈出新步伐。



                                                                                                                                                                            4. We fully implemented the innovation-driven development strategy and continued to unlock new enthusiasm for innovation and business startups.


                                                                                                                                                                            We bolstered the role of innovation as the primary driver of development. Substantive breakthroughs were made in reforming the management system for science and technology, and efficiency was greatly enhanced in the national innovation system. High-tech industries and strategic emerging industries recorded rapid growth, the Internet Plus action plan was further implemented, and much progress was made toward fostering new growth drivers. Innovation and business startups have been elevated to yet higher levels, and new strides have been made in building China into a country of innovators.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是科技实力和创新能力不断提升。全国研究与试验发展经费投入强度达到2.18%,科技进步贡献率预计提高到58.5%。基础研究进一步加强,首次在半导体量子点体系中实现三量子比特逻辑门,首次发现铁基超导体中的马约拉纳束缚态,首次人工创建单条染色体真核细胞。一批重大科技成果涌现,嫦娥四号探测器成功着陆月球背面,第二艘航母出海试航,国产大型水陆两栖飞机水上首飞,北斗导航系统面向全球开启服务,5G技术系统设备达到预商用水平。重大科技、民用空间、信息等领域基础设施建设提质提速,科研管理机制和评价激励制度不断完善。全面创新改革试验169项先行先试改革举措已完成123项,第二批共23项改革举措正在复制推广。北京、上海全球影响力科技创新中心建设加速推进,粤港澳大湾区国际科技创新中心建设方案印发实施,北京怀柔、上海张江、安徽合肥3个综合性国家科学中心建设进展顺利,海南省创新驱动发展战略实施方案出台实施。国家级新区、开发区和20个国家自主创新示范区、168个国家高新区的引领作用增强,高速列车、新能源汽车等国家技术创新中心建设深入推进。国家产业创新中心工作指引出台实施,先进计算、先进存储、生物育种等3个国家产业创新中心加快建设。企业技术创新主体地位不断提高,新认定111家国家企业技术中心。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) Our scientific and technological strength and innovation capacity continued to increase.


                                                                                                                                                                            China's spending on R&D reached 2.18% of GDP, and the contribution of scientific and technological advances to economic growth hit 58.5%. Basic research was further strengthened with a number of firsts being achieved: Chinese scientists demonstrated a toffoli gate in a semiconductor three-qubit system, found evidence for Majorana bound states in an iron-based superconductor, and created a single-chromosome eukaryote. We also saw a constant stream of major scientific and technological advances throughout the year: The Chang'e-4 lunar probe successfully landed on the far side of the moon; China's second homemade aircraft carrier took to the seas for its trial voyage; our homemade large amphibious aircraft completed its first overwater flight; the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System began providing services to the world; and China's 5G system equipment has reached the pre-commercial level.


                                                                                                                                                                            We ensured faster and better-quality infrastructure construction in major science and technology, civil-space, information, and other fields, and continued improving the management mechanisms and assessment and incentive systems for scientific research. Pilot reforms for comprehensive innovation have made further progress—123 out of 169 preliminary trials were completed and a second batch of 23 reform measures are currently being replicated and applied on a broader scale. Efforts to see Beijing and Shanghai become global science and technology innovation centers picked up pace, plans on building Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into an international center for science and technology innovation were issued for implementation, and construction on the three comprehensive national science centers in Beijing's Huairou, Shanghai's Zhangjiang, and Anhui's Hefei advanced smoothly. The Implementation Plan for the Innovation-Driven Development Strategy of Hainan Province was released. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Our state-level new areas, development zones, 20 national innovation demonstration zones, and 168 national new- and high-tech development zones played a stronger role in leading development, and good progress was made in the construction of national technological innovation centers for high-speed trains and NEVs. We unveiled the Guidelines on Building National Industrial Innovation Centers, and stepped up the building of the three national industrial innovation centers for advanced computing, advanced memory technology, and bio-breeding. We continued to enhance the role of enterprises as the principal entities in technological innovation, and certified a further 111 state-level enterprise technology centers.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是大众创业万众创新纵深推进。推动创新创业高质量发展打造“双创”升级版的意见出台实施,制造业“双创”平台培育三年行动计划深入推进,确定150个制造业“双创”平台试点示范项目。6500多家众创空间服务创业团队40万家,创业就业人数超过140万人。1824家星创天地培训农村创业人才4.9万人次,孵化企业2.3万家。加强“双创”示范基地建设和小微企业创业创新示范基地建设,建立完善国家创新创业政策信息服务网,成功举办2018年全国“双创”活动周和“创响中国”系列活动。国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金有效运转,新投资企业超过1200家。全年新登记注册企业增长10.3%,平均每天新设1.84万户。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Business startups and innovation initiatives were intensified.


                                                                                                                                                                            The Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development of Innovation and Business Startups and Upgrading the National Business Startups and Innovation Initiative was promulgated. We continued to carry out the Three-Year Action Plan for Developing Business Startups and Innovation Platforms in Manufacturing, and confirmed 150 demonstration projects to pilot these platforms. Over 6,500 maker spaces have served 400,000 entrepreneurial teams, and helped generate over 1.4 million jobs; 1,824 rural maker spaces have filled 49,000 places on training courses and incubated 23,000 enterprises. We encouraged more robust development of business startups and innovation demonstration centers and similar demonstration hubs for small and micro businesses, and set up a sound national information service portal for related policies. We successfully held the 2018 National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Week and the Innovating China Tour. The National Venture Capital Guide Fund for Emerging Industries operated effectively, helping more than 1,200 new enterprises receive investment. The number of newly registered businesses in 2018 grew by 10.3%, with an average of 18,400 new businesses daily.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是新兴产业蓬勃发展。全面落实“十三五”国家战略性新兴产业发展规划,推动战略性产业集群发展,“互联网+”、新一代信息基础设施、人工智能创新发展、生物产业倍增、民用空间基础设施等重大工程加速推进。规模以上高技术制造业增加值增长11.7%,快于全部规模以上工业增速。电子商务法正式公布,引导和规范数字经济、共享经济等新业态健康发展的政策文件陆续出台,对新业态新模式的包容审慎监管进一步完善,智能零售、产能共享等新热点持续涌现,全年实物商品网上零售额增长25.4%,占社会消费品零售总额比例达18.4%,比上年提高3.4个百分点。京津冀、贵州等8个国家大数据综合试验区加快建设。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) Emerging industries enjoyed vigorous development.


                                                                                                                                                                            The National Development Plan for Strategic Emerging Industries during the 13th Five-Year Plan Period was fully implemented. We promoted the development of strategic industry clusters, and moved faster to advance major projects on the "Internet Plus" model, next-generation information infrastructure, innovation-driven AI development, bio-tech industry, and civil-space infrastructure. The value-added of large high-tech manufacturing enterprises grew 11.7%, much higher than that of large industrial enterprises as a whole. The E-Commerce Law was promulgated, and a number of policies were issued over the course of the year to guide and regulate the development of new forms of business, such as the digital economy and the sharing economy. Accommodative and prudential regulation over new industries and new forms of business was further improved, allowing for the emergence of a stream of new hot innovations such as smart retail and capacity sharing. The online retail sales of goods grew by 25.4%, accounting for 18.4% of total retail sales of consumer goods, an increase of 3.4 percentage points from the previous year. We accelerated the building of eight national comprehensive experimental zones for big data in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Guizhou, and other areas.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是军民融合发展战略扎实推进。国家军民融合创新示范区启动建设。科技军民融合重点专项与军民科技协同创新平台启动,军民融合重大示范项目建设进展顺利。国家军民融合信息化平台建设有力推进。国家国防科技工业军民融合产业投资基金、国家级军民融合发展产业投资基金启动运行。支持符合条件的军民融合企业发行企业债券,拓宽军民融合投融资渠道。第三届中国军民两用技术创新应用大赛和第四届军民融合高技术装备成果展成功举办。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) The military-civilian integration strategy was implemented to good effect.


                                                                                                                                                                            Construction began on demonstration zones to promote innovation in military-civilian integration (MCI). Key special MCI projects on science and technology and the platform for military-civilian collaborative innovation in science and technology were launched. Smooth progress was made in major MCI demonstration projects, and strong steps were taken to develop the national MCI information platform. The national MCI industrial investment fund for defense-related science, technology, and industry was put into operation, along with the national-level MCI industrial investment fund. We also broadened investment and financing channels for military-civilian integration, by offering support for qualified MCI enterprises to issue corporate bonds. The third China Dual-Use Technology and Application Contest and the fourth Exhibition of MCI High-Tech Equipment Outcomes were successfully held.


                                                                                                                                                                            (五)深化改革扩大开放,经济社会发展动力进一步激发。按照深化党和国家机构改革方案,国务院机构改革有序推进。深入开展纪念改革开放40周年系列庆祝活动,推动一系列重大改革开放举措落地。



                                                                                                                                                                            5. We pursued deeper reform and greater opening up and unlocked more drivers of economic and social development.


                                                                                                                                                                            Reform of the State Council's institutions progressed as per the arrangements in the Plan on Deepening Reform of Party and State Institutions. A vast array of activities were held to celebrate the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening up, and a host of major measures to promote reform and opening up were implemented.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是营商环境持续优化。“放管服”改革深入推进。全面实施全国统一的市场准入负面清单制度,市场准入负面清单(2018年版)发布,清单以外的行业、领域、业务等各类市场主体皆可依法平等进入。取消汽车投资项目核准等一批行政许可事项,大幅压缩企业开办时间,副省级以上城市和省会城市企业开办时间压缩至8.5个工作日以内。“证照分离”改革在全国推开,全面实施全国统一“二十四证合一”改革。工业产品生产许可证制度改革加快推进,产品种类由38类降至24类。在北京等15个城市和浙江省开展工程建设项目审批制度改革试点。世界银行公布的我国营商环境全球排名由2017年第78位大幅跃升至第46位。在22个城市开展中国营商环境试评价,中国营商环境评价体系初步构建。深入推进“双随机、一公开”监管,基本实现市场监管领域日常监管全覆盖。社会信用体系建设持续推进,电信诈骗、偷逃骗税等19个重点领域失信问题专项治理深入开展,守信联合激励和失信联合惩戒机制初显成效。政务服务“一网一门一次”改革启动实施,建立国务院部门数据共享责任清单,基本建成全国一体化的数据共享交换平台体系,数据共享交换量达360亿条次。深入推进审批服务便民化,“减证便民”行动和“群众办事百项堵点疏解行动”扎实开展。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) The business environment consistently improved.


                                                                                                                                                                            Reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services continued apace. Fully implementing the Negative List for Market Access, we issued the 2018 version, and took steps to ensure industries, sectors, and commercial activities not on the list could be fairly accessed by all types of market entities in accordance with law. We also abolished a number of items subject to administrative approval including those for automobile investment projects. The time taken to set up a business has been dramatically shortened to within 8.5 working days in cities at and above sub-provincial level and provincial capitals.


                                                                                                                                                                            The reform separating out the business license from certificates required for starting a business was rolled out nationwide, and the national reform to merge 24 types of certification into one certificate was fully implemented. Reform of the industrial production licensing system picked up speed, and the number of product categories has been cut from 38 to 24. Trial reforms on the approval system for construction projects were started in Beijing and 14 other cities, as well as in Zhejiang Province. In the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business ranking (2019), China jumped from 78th to 46th place. We also piloted a business environment evaluation suited to China's conditions in 22 cities, marking the first step toward establishing China's own business environment evaluation system.


                                                                                                                                                                            Progress was made in promoting the oversight model using randomly selected inspectors to inspect randomly selected entities and requiring the prompt release of results, and full coverage of daily oversight in market regulation was basically realized. We continued building the social credit system. We introduced targeted measures in 19 key sectors against acts in bad faith, including telecom fraud, tax evasion, and tax fraud. The mechanisms of joint incentives for acts of good faith and joint punishment for acts of bad faith produced initial results. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We launched reforms to see that people need only log in to one website or visit one place and make one trip to access a government service. We formulated lists of responsibilities on data sharing for departments under the State Council, and basically established a national unified system of platforms for sharing and exchanging data. This system has so far facilitated data exchanges of 36 billion in number. We worked hard to provide more convenient approval services, and made solid progress in the "less certificates, more convenience" initiative and the campaign to free up 100 bottlenecks preventing people from accessing government services.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是国资国企改革加快推进。国有企业混合所有制改革积极稳步开展,深化混合所有制改革试点有关政策出台实施,三批50家混合所有制改革试点梯次推进并取得重要阶段性成效。改革国有企业工资决定机制的意见、推进国有资本投资、运营公司改革试点的实施意见出台,深化国企改革“1+N”政策体系搭建完成。加强国有企业资产负债约束的指导意见印发实施,国有企业资产负债约束机制初步建立。中国特色现代国有企业制度进一步完善,有效制衡的法人治理结构和灵活高效的市场化经营机制加快建立。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Reform of state capital and SOEs picked up pace.


                                                                                                                                                                            The reform to introduce mixed ownership to SOEs moved forward in an active and steady manner. We issued the policies for deepening pilot reforms on mixed ownership, and carried out pilot mixed-ownership reforms sequentially in 50 SOEs in three groups, yielding important results. The Guidelines on Reforming the Salary-Setting Mechanism for SOEs and the Guidelines on Promoting Pilot Reforms in State Capital Investment and Management Companies were published. A system anchored by the Guidelines on Deepening Reform of SOEs as well as other supplementary policies was put in place. The Guidelines on Strengthening Constraints on SOEs' Debt-to-Asset Ratios were promulgated, marking the initial step in setting up a constraint mechanism for SOEs' debt-to-asset ratios. The modern SOE system with Chinese characteristics was further improved, and faster progress was made in establishing a corporate governance structure with effective checks and balances and flexible and efficient market-based operating mechanisms.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是支持民营经济发展力度加大。加强产权和知识产权保护,建立健全产权保护协调机制,全面清理涉及产权保护的规章规范性文件,深入开展政府机构失信问题专项治理行动。“互联网+”知识产权保护工作方案出台实施。大力弘扬企业家精神,私营企业暂行条例废止。着力疏通货币政策传导机制,鼓励金融机构扩大对实体经济特别是制造业企业、民营企业、小微企业的信贷投放。设立民营企业债券融资支持工具,以市场化方式帮助企业缓解融资难问题。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) The private sector received stronger support.


                                                                                                                                                                            We strengthened the protection of property rights and intellectual property rights (IPR). We set up a robust mechanism to ensure coordinated property rights protection, conducted a review of all regulations and normative documents relating to property rights protection, and carried out extensive campaigns to address failures within government institutions to act in good faith in this area. The Plan for the Internet Plus IPR Protection was unveiled. In line with our efforts to promote entrepreneurship, we repealed the Provisional Regulations for Private Enterprises. We worked to improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, and encouraged financial institutions to provide more credit to the real economy and to manufacturing firms, private enterprises, and small and micro businesses in particular. We set up instruments to support private enterprises in debt financing and help them find market-based solutions to financing problems.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是财税金融改革稳步推进。中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革分领域推进,预算绩效管理制度不断完善。增值税改革进一步深化。修改个人所得税法及其实施条例,提高基本减除费用标准,设立6项专项附加扣除,税率结构进一步调整优化。环境保护税顺利开征。完善系统重要性金融机构监管、加强非金融企业投资金融机构监管、完善国有金融资本管理等政策文件出台实施。有序推动民营银行发展,17家民营银行获批开业。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) The reform of the fiscal, tax, and financial systems registered steady progress. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We continued reforms to divide fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities between central and local governments on a sector by sector basis, and made consistent improvements to performance-based budgetary management. In the area of tax, further progress was made in VAT reform. We revised the Law on Individual Income Tax and its implementation regulations, raised the income tax threshold, introduced six special deductible items, and improved the structure of tax rates. The environmental protection tax came into force. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We published policies on improving regulation of systemically important financial institutions, on strengthening oversight over nonfinancial firms' investment in financial institutions, and on improving the management of state-owned financial capital. The orderly development of private banks was promoted, with approval being granted for the establishment of 17 private banks.


                                                                                                                                                                            五是共建“一带一路”取得新进展。推进“一带一路”建设工作5周年座谈会召开,为推动“一带一路”建设走深走实明确了方向。围绕重点方向重点国别,巩固共建意愿、推动规划对接,已累计同150多个国家和国际组织签署171份政府间合作文件。国际产能合作稳步推进,境外经贸合作区产业集聚效应增强,与法国、日本、新加坡等10多个国家签署第三方市场合作文件,中老、中泰铁路和中阿(联酋)“一带一路”产能合作园区等重点项目取得实质性进展,雅万高铁全面开工,瓜达尔港等重点港口项目进展顺利,中欧班列提质增效工作取得重要进展,累计开行超过1.3万列,回程率提高近20个百分点。“一带一路”沿线国家航空互联互通水平显著提高,新开航线106条。“一带一路”国际科学组织联盟成立,推动与东盟、南亚、阿拉伯国家、中亚、中东欧5个区域共建技术转移平台,推动与菲律宾、印尼等8个国家共建科技园区。中非合作论坛北京峰会取得圆满成功和丰硕成果。数字丝绸之路建设稳步推进,已与16个国家签署合作谅解备忘录,“丝路电商”全球布局步伐加快,与17个国家签署合作协议。



                                                                                                                                                                            5) The Belt and Road Initiative made new advances. 


                                                                                                                                                                            A symposium was held to mark the fifth anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). During the symposium the BRI's future trajectory was outlined with a view to ensuring it continues building momentum and producing concrete outcomes. Focusing on key areas and key countries, we worked to build on the collective desire for cooperation and promoted the coordination of development plans. To date, a total of 171 inter-governmental cooperation documents have been signed with over 150 countries and international organizations. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We steadily increased international industrial-capacity cooperation. The positive effect of industrial concentration in overseas economic and trade cooperation zones was much more noticeable, and third-market cooperation documents were signed with over ten countries, including France, Japan, and Singapore. There was substantial progress in key BRI projects like the China-Laos and China-Thailand rail lines and the China-UAE Industrial Park. Construction is fully underway on the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed line and making smooth progress on key port projects like Gwadar in Pakistan. We made important improvements to the quality and efficiency of the China-Europe freight train services. The services have so far registered over 13,000 trips, and have seen a 20-percentage-point increase in the number of return journeys to China. Marked progress was made in aviation connectivity among BRI countries, with the opening of 106 new air routes. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The BRI International Science Organizations Alliance was established to promote collaboration on building technology transfer platforms between China and ASEAN, Arab states, and countries in south Asia, central Asia, and central and eastern Europe, and to co-establish science and technology parks with the Philippines, Indonesia, and six other countries. We successfully hosted the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, which produced many positive outcomes. Work on the Digital Silk Road progressed steadily with the signing of cooperation MOUs with 16 countries, and faster moves were made to promote Silk Road E-Commerce across the globe with the signing of cooperation agreements with 17 countries.


                                                                                                                                                                            六是贸易强国建设扎实推进。首届中国国际进口博览会成功举办,向全世界宣示了我国主动开放市场、推动经济全球化的决心。区域全面经济伙伴关系协定谈判加速推进,与新加坡签署自贸协定升级版,与毛里求斯完成自贸协定谈判,累计已与25个国家和地区达成17个自贸协定,多双边经贸合作进一步深化。出台53项措施支持自贸试验区深化改革创新,在全国范围内复制推广30项自贸试验区改革试点经验。海南全岛自贸试验区启动建设,探索建设中国特色自由贸易港。新设一批跨境电子商务综合试验区,完善跨境电商零售进口监管和税收政策,扩大市场采购贸易试点范围,跨境电子商务、市场采购贸易等新业态新模式蓬勃发展。关税总水平由9.8%下调至7.5%,积极扩大进口促进对外贸易平衡发展。多元化市场不断拓展,全年货物贸易进出口总额达30.51万亿元,增长9.7%。



                                                                                                                                                                            6) China made solid progress in developing as a trader of quality.


                                                                                                                                                                            We successfully hosted the first China International Import Expo, an event which has shown to the world China's determination to continue opening its market and promote economic globalization. We stepped up negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, signed an upgraded free trade agreement (FTA) with Singapore, and completed FTA negotiations with Mauritius. With this, China has further strengthened its bilateral and multilateral economic and trade cooperation, and signed a total of 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We adopted 53 measures to deepen reform and promote innovation in pilot free trade zones, and applied 30 practices developed from trial reforms in pilot free trade zones across the country. We began work on building China (Hainan) Pilot Free Trade Zone, and carried out exploratory work on setting up free trade ports with Chinese features. We built more integrated experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce, improved retail import supervision and taxation policies on cross-border e-commerce, and expanded the scope of trials on market procurement trade. These steps have helped support the vigorous development of new forms and models of trade such as cross-border e-commerce and market procurement trade. We lowered China's overall tariff level from 9.8% to 7.5% and worked to balance China's foreign trade by actively expanding imports. The diversity of China's market grew continuously. The total value of imported and exported goods for the year stood at 30.51 trillion yuan, an increase of 9.7%.


                                                                                                                                                                            七是利用外资环境不断优化。全面放宽市场准入,2018年版全国和自贸试验区两个外资准入负面清单发布,特别管理措施分别压减至48条、45条,金融领域对外开放稳步推进。在全国推行外资企业设立商务备案与工商登记“一口办理”,积极推进在产业政策、科技政策、政府采购、资质许可、标准制定等方面平等对待内外资企业,开发区改革和创新发展不断深化,外商投资环境持续优化。全年外商直接投资达1350亿美元,增长3%。




                                                                                                                                                                            7) The foreign investment environment was continuously improved. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Restrictions on market access were relaxed across the board. Two editions of the 2018 negative list for foreign investment were published, one for the whole country and the other for pilot free trade zones. The number of special administrative measures applying in each case has been reduced to 48 and 45 respectively. Steady progress was made in opening up the financial sector. We instituted a nationwide policy of allowing foreign-invested enterprises to complete business filing procedures and business registration in one go. We took active steps to promote equal treatment of domestic and foreign enterprises in terms of industrial policy, science and technology policy, government procurement, license applications, and standards-setting. Reform and innovation-driven development in development zones were stepped up, and the business environment for foreign investors continued to improve. China attracted around US$ 135 billion in foreign direct investment over the year, an increase of 3%.


                                                                                                                                                                            八是对外投资平稳有序发展。企业境外投资管理办法、对外投资备案(核准)报告暂行办法正式施行,全口径、全过程管理不断完善,对外投资行业结构进一步优化,主要流向租赁和商务服务业、制造业等。发布企业境外经营合规管理指引,企业合规意识有所增强。引导对外投融资基金健康发展,企业“走出去”融资渠道进一步拓宽。全年非金融类境外直接投资达到1205亿美元。



                                                                                                                                                                            8) Development of outward investment was steady and orderly. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The Management Provisions for Outward Investment by Enterprises and the Interim Measures for Reporting on the Registration (Approval) of Outward Investment were put into force. We enhanced unified supervision over outward investment at all stages and further improved the sectorial composition of outward investments, with the bulk flowing into leasing, business services, and manufacturing. To enhance the awareness of enterprises about compliance, we published the Guide on Compliance Management for Enterprises' Overseas Operations. We provided guidance to see the sound development of outward investment and financing funds, thus expanding the channels through which enterprises can seek financing for their "go-global" efforts. Non-financial outward direct investment reached US$ 120.5 billion in 2018.


                                                                                                                                                                            (六)大力实施乡村振兴战略,农业农村发展新动能加快培育。乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)出台实施,28个省级乡村振兴战略规划已印发,其他省(区、市)已基本完成规划编制工作,多规合一的村庄规划编制部署推进,乡村振兴的制度框架和政策体系逐步建立,乡村振兴阶段性重点工作全面展开。



                                                                                                                                                                            6. We put strong focus on implementing the rural revitalization strategy and moved faster to foster new growth drivers for agricultural and rural development. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The Strategic Plan for Rural Revitalization (2018-2022) was issued for implementation. A total of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have already published complimentary plans. In addition, plans for all others have been basically completed, and work on rolling separate village development plans into one single plan has continued. The institutional framework and policy system for rural revitalization have been gradually established and all major work planned for the current stage has begun.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是农业基础进一步夯实。粮食总产量保持在1.3万亿斤以上。新增高效节水灌溉面积2158万亩,新增高标准农田8000多万亩,完成9亿多亩粮食生产功能区和重要农产品生产保护区划定任务。深入实施现代化种业提升工程,高标准建设国家南繁科研育种基地,加快推动粮油、蔬菜、水果等农作物种子种苗基地建设。172项重大水利工程累计开工133项,在建投资规模超过1万亿元。全年完成营造林2.34亿亩。开展“农业质量年”行动,加快推进质量兴农、绿色兴农、品牌强农,主要农产品质量安全监测合格率保持在97%以上,化肥、农药使用量均下降。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) The foundations of agriculture grew stronger.


                                                                                                                                                                            Total grain output exceeded 650 million metric tons. Efficient water-saving irrigation methods were newly applied to 1.44 million hectares of land. The area of high-standard cropland was increased by over 5.33 million hectares. We have established functional zones for grain production and protective areas for the production of major agricultural products on an area of over 60 million hectares. We stepped up the initiative to upgrade the modern seed industry, ensured high standards were adopted in the building of the Nanfan National Seed Breeding Base, and sped up construction on seed and seedling breeding bases for grain and oil-bearing crops, vegetables, and fruits. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Work has begun on 133 of 172 planned major water conservancy projects, with the total investment in ongoing projects exceeding 1 trillion yuan. A total of 15.6 million hectares of land were afforested throughout the year. The Year of Agricultural Quality campaign was carried out to spur agricultural development by raising quality standards, promoting green development, and building strong brands. The percentage of major agricultural products that passed quality and safety tests remained above 97%, and the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides both decreased.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是农村一二三产业融合发展取得积极进展。认定农村产业融合发展示范园100家,启动创建现代农业产业园62个、农业产业强镇254个。深入实施主要农作物生产全程机械化推进行动。大力发展智慧农业,农业生产、经营、管理、服务数字化水平进一步提升。农村新产业新业态加快培育。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Development of the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries was much more integrated in rural areas. 


                                                                                                                                                                            A total of 100 demonstration parks for rural industry integration have so far been certified, and work started on building 62 modern agricultural industrial parks and 254 towns with agricultural strengths. We continued promoting complete mechanization of the production process for major crops. We also concentrated on developing intelligent agriculture, boosting the levels of digitization in agricultural production, operations, management, and services. New industries and new forms of business in rural areas enjoyed rapid development.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是农业农村改革稳步推进。完善稻谷、小麦最低收购价政策制度。健全玉米和大豆市场化收购加补贴机制。农村土地征收、集体经营性建设用地入市、宅基地制度改革试点工作有序推进。宅基地和农房确权登记发证加快实施,土地承包权确权登记颁证工作基本完成,承包地已确权面积14.8亿亩,超过二轮家庭承包地(账面)面积。建立健全进城落户农民土地承包权、宅基地使用权、集体收益分配权维护和自愿有偿退出机制,在3个省、50个地市、150个县启动第三批农村集体产权制度改革试点。全国已有超过15万个农村集体组织完成改革,共确认集体成员2亿多人。集体林权制度改革进一步深化。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) Agricultural and rural reforms registered steady progress. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We made improvements to the policy on setting minimum purchase prices for wheat and rice and to the mechanism for combining market-based purchases with government subsidies for corn and soybeans. Well-planned steps were taken to push forward with trial reforms on rural land requisition, the marketization of rural collective land designated for business-related construction, and the system for rural land designated for housing. We stepped up work to determine, register, and certify rural home land rights and rural housing property rights, and basically completed the work to determine, register, and certify contracted rural land rights. Rights on 986.7 million hectares of contracted land have been certified, exceeding the cadastral area covered during the second round of household land contracting in rural areas. We have set up robust mechanisms for former rural residents who now hold urban residency to protect their rights on contracted rural land, use rights on rural land designated for housing, and rights to share in the proceeds from rural collective undertakings, as well as their entitlement to voluntarily transfer these rights in return for compensation. The third batch of trials to reform the rural collective property rights system began in 150 counties in 50 prefectures and cities and in 3 provinces. To date this reform has been completed by over 150,000 rural collectives nationwide and has involved more than 200 million people. Reform of collective forest tenure was furthered.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是美丽宜居乡村建设步伐加快。农村人居环境整治三年行动全面启动。农村突出环境问题综合治理试点示范和农村生活污水治理示范有序开展。农村生活垃圾治理覆盖面进一步扩大,厕所革命积极推进。农村饮水安全巩固提升工程加快实施,农村自来水普及率进一步提升。农村公路建设加快推进。农村机井通电、小城镇中心村农网改造升级、贫困村通动力电等顺利完成。开展电信普遍服务试点、“宽带乡村”、“百兆乡村”示范工程,新一代信息基础设施建设工程加快推进。农村基层综合性文化服务中心建设有序推进。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) Work on building a beautiful and livable countryside picked up pace. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The three-year campaign to improve rural living environments got underway across the country. We steadily moved forward pilot demonstration programs to comprehensively address serious environmental problems and demonstrations to treat household wastewater in rural areas. The project to manage household refuse was extended to more rural areas and the Toilet Revolution was actively carried forward. We stepped up efforts to consolidate and build on the progress made in providing safe drinking water, and increased the availability of tap water in rural areas. More rural roads were built. We successfully concluded the projects to provide power to all electric pump sets on rural flatlands, to upgrade power grids in small towns and hub villages, and to provide three-phase power to poor villages. We carried out trials of providing universal telecommunications services and demonstration projects to extend broadband connectivity, and particularly to install 100M fiber optic networks in rural areas, and moved faster to build next-generation information infrastructure there. The orderly development of multipurpose cultural service centers in rural areas continued.


                                                                                                                                                                            (七)统筹推动区域协调发展,空间发展格局更趋优化。发挥各地区比较优势,努力缩小区域发展差距,大力推进新型城镇化建设,区域发展的协同性、联动性、整体性进一步增强。



                                                                                                                                                                            7. We took holistic steps to promote coordinated regional development and saw further improvements in spatial development patterns. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We gave play to the comparative advantages of different regions, worked on narrowing regional development disparities, and focused on promoting new urbanization. Stronger levels of coordination, connectivity, and integration were achieved in development between regions.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是进一步促进区域协调发展。建立更加有效的区域协调发展新机制的意见出台实施。推动西部地区进一步开发开放,新开工交通、能源等重点工程28项,总投资4825亿元。东北地区营商环境建设、民营经济发展、与东部对口合作等取得新突破,老工业城市和资源型地区转型稳步推进,城区老工业区、独立工矿区改造搬迁和采煤沉陷区综合治理持续实施。先进制造业在中部地区合理布局提速,汉江、淮河生态经济带发展规划以及湘南湘西承接产业转移示范区总体方案出台实施。东部地区新动能加快培育壮大,组织开展山东新旧动能转换综合试验区建设。革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区加快发展,交通、水利、能源、通信、物流等重大基础设施建设扎实推进,对口支援深入开展,支持新疆、西藏和四省藏区经济社会发展政策措施进一步完善。海洋经济发展示范区启动建设,海洋强国建设加快推进。国家级新区、临空经济示范区、综合配套改革试验区等功能平台的示范引领作用不断增强。沿边重点开发开放试验区建设稳步推进,形成了一批可复制可推广经验。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) Further strides were made in promoting coordinated regional development. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The Guidelines on Establishing More Effective New Mechanisms for Coordinated Regional Development were released. To promote further development and opening up in the western region, we launched 28 major projects in transportation, energy, and other fields with a total investment of 482.5 billion yuan. In the northeast, breakthroughs were made in improving the business environment, developing the private sector, and promoting cooperative partnerships with the eastern region; steady progress was made in the transformation of old industrial cities and resource-dependent areas; efforts were continued to rebuild or relocate old industrial districts within cities and independent industrial and mining areas and to implement comprehensive solutions in areas affected by mining-induced subsidence. In the central region, we moved faster to achieve a rational distribution of advanced manufacturing, and began to implement development plans for the Han and Huai river eco-economic belts and the general plan for industrial relocation demonstration zones in southern and western Hunan. The eastern region moved faster to foster and strengthen new growth drivers; in Shandong, work began on a comprehensive experimental zone for replacing old growth drivers with new ones. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poor areas all recorded faster development, achieving solid progress in constructing major infrastructure such as transportation, water conservancy, energy, communications, and logistics facilities. We scaled up one-to-one assistance programs, and further improved economic and social policies and measures in Xinjiang, Tibet, and the Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We took faster steps toward building China into a strong maritime country, with construction beginning on demonstration zones for developing the marine economy. Many functional platforms, such as state-level new areas, airport economy demonstration zones, and experimental zones for integrated, complete reform, strengthened their ability to demonstrate and offer guidance on reform practices. Steady progress was made in the construction of experimental zones for development and opening up in major border areas, giving rise to a set of practices applicable to other areas.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是重大区域发展战略有力推进。以疏解北京非首都功能为“牛鼻子”,推动京津冀协同发展取得明显进展,河北雄安新区规划纲要、支持河北雄安新区全面深化改革和扩大开放的指导意见、河北雄安新区总体规划(2018-2035年)出台实施,北京城市副中心规划建设提速,京雄城际铁路开工建设,北京大兴国际机场建设和运营筹备工作全面推进。长江经济带共抓大保护格局进一步巩固,国土空间规划编制工作启动,“三水共治”、河湖清“四乱”专项行动扎实推进,1361座非法码头专项整治全面完成,长江干流断面水质优良比例明显提高。综合立体交通走廊建设加快推进,沿江高铁规划建设、省际待贯通路段建设提速、长江深水航道建设及干线港口铁水联运取得积极进展。粤港澳大湾区发展规划纲要发布实施,重点项目建设全面启动,港珠澳大桥正式开通运营,一系列便利港澳居民在内地发展的政策举措落地见效。支持海南全面深化改革开放的指导意见出台实施。长江三角洲区域一体化发展规划纲要启动编制。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Strong progress was recorded in implementing major regional development strategies. 


                                                                                                                                                                            With the focus on relieving Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as the capital, we made marked progress in promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The Plan for Xiongan New Area in Hebei, the Guidelines on Supporting Xiongan New Area in Comprehensively Deepening Reform and Opening up, and the General Plan for Xiongan New Area in Hebei (2018-2035) were unveiled for implementation. We sped up the development of the administrative center of Beijing Municipality, began construction on the Beijing-Xiongan Intercity Railway, and made progress on all fronts in building Beijing Daxing International Airport and preparing for its operation. 


                                                                                                                                                                            On the Yangtze Economic Belt, the pattern of close coordination on environmental protection was consolidated. We began formulating a territorial space plan, and made solid progress in employing the three-fold approach of controlling water pollution, restoring water ecosystems, and conserving water resources and in addressing four kinds of behaviors detrimental to environmental protection on rivers and lakes. Rectification work was completed on 1,361 illegal wharves, and the cross-section water quality of the main stream of the Yangtze River improved significantly. Work on the integrated multidimensional transportation corridor was stepped up. We made good progress in planning and building a high-speed railway along the Yangtze River, accelerating work on the unfinished sections of inter-provincial expressways, constructing a deepwater channel on the Yangtze, and installing combined rail-water transportation facilities at ports along its main channel. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We unveiled the Development Plan for Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and initiated major construction projects across the board. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was officially opened to traffic. Policies and measures to make it easier for Hong Kong and Macao residents to pursue development on the mainland came into effect and are producing positive results. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We implemented the Guidelines on Supporting Hainan in Comprehensively Deepening Reform and Opening Up. Work began on drawing up a plan for integrated regional development of the Yangtze River Delta.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是新型城镇化质量有效提升。农业转移人口进城落户更加便捷,大中城市落户政策持续放宽,居住证制度全覆盖目标基本实现,全国常住人口城镇化率达59.58%,户籍人口城镇化率达43.37%,比上年末分别提高1.06个百分点和1.02个百分点。一批跨省(区、市)城市群规划出台实施,各地城市群建设全面推进,现代化都市圈加快培育发展。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) The quality of new urbanization was enhanced. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Rural household registration holders living in urban areas can now obtain permanent urban residency with greater ease. Permanent residency policies continued to be loosened in large and medium-sized cities, and the residence card system was basically implemented in all cities. The percentage of permanent urban residents reached 59.58%, while the percentage of registered urban residents reached 43.37%, 1.06 and 1.02 percentage points above the figures at year-end 2017 respectively. A group of plans for trans-provincial city clusters were published, city clusters throughout the country showed strong development, and modern metropolitan areas grew rapidly.


                                                                                                                                                                            (八)着力保障和改善民生,发展成果更多更公平惠及人民群众。坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,紧紧围绕人民群众普遍关心的突出问题,推动一大批惠民举措落细落实。



                                                                                                                                                                            8. We focused on ensuring and improving the people's wellbeing and saw they enjoyed more of the fruits of development in a fairer way.


                                                                                                                                                                            Upholding our vision of people-centered development, we pushed for detailed and effective implementation of a whole raft of initiatives aimed at benefiting the people and addressing prominent problems of public concern.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是稳定就业有序推进。做好当前和今后一个时期促进就业工作的若干意见、推行终身职业技能培训制度的意见出台实施。公共就业创业服务持续加强,援企稳岗力度加大,支持农民工等人员返乡创业试点工作持续推进。高校毕业生就业创业促进计划等深入实施。制定出台推进全方位公共就业服务指导意见,“互联网+公共就业服务”全面推进。人力资源市场暂行条例发布实施,人力资源市场体系逐步健全。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) Well-planned steps were taken to keep employment stable. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The Guidelines on Promoting Employment for the Present and Coming Period and the Guidelines on Implementing the Life-Long Vocational Skills Training System were promulgated. We enhanced public employment and business startup services, stepped up support for enterprises to keep employment stable, and continued the pilot projects to support rural migrant workers and others returning home to set up businesses. Programs to guide college graduates in finding jobs and starting businesses also continued. We formulated and unveiled the Guidelines on Providing Extensive Public Employment Services, and made impressive strides in instituting the Internet Plus Public Employment Services model. We introduced the Provisional Regulations on Human Resource Markets, thus opening the way for the gradual establishment of a robust HR market system.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是社会保障制度日益完善。企业职工基本养老保险基金中央调剂制度正式实施,城乡居民基本养老保险待遇确定和基础养老金正常调整机制建立。统一社保费征收管理机构工作稳步推进,社保费征收管理制度进一步规范。整合城乡居民基本医疗保险制度持续推进。养老保险覆盖人数已超过9.42亿人,基本医疗保险覆盖人数已超过13.44亿人。国家跨省异地就医结算平台进一步完善,跨省定点医疗机构实现县级行政区全覆盖,外出农民工、外来就业创业人员全部纳入覆盖范围,异地就医直接结算累计达152.6万人次。生育保险与职工医保合并实施试点稳步推进。失业保险“保生活、防失业、促就业”功能不断完善。农民工参加工伤保险政策进一步健全。低保制度不断完善,城乡低保实现全覆盖且保障水平持续提高。退役士兵就业安置进一步加强,带病回乡退伍军人、参战参试退役人员等优抚对象生活补助标准提高。社会福利服务体系建设加强,社会救助综合改革试点有序开展。城镇保障性安居工程建设扎实推进,城镇棚户区住房改造开工达626万套,公租房新增分配100万套,大中城市住房租赁市场加快培育。农村危房改造190万户。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) Improvements were made to the social security system on a continuing basis. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The central regulation system for enterprise employees' basic old-age insurance funds formally came into operation. Mechanisms were established to set standards on benefits for rural and non-working urban residents under the basic old-age insurance scheme and to allow for regular adjustment of their basic pension benefits. Steady strides were made in bringing the tasks of collecting and managing social insurance premiums under the remit of a single agency, and regulation in this area was further improved. We continued to make progress in aligning basic medical insurance schemes for rural residents and non-working urban residents. In total, more than 942 million people are now covered by basic old-age insurance schemes, and over 1.344 billion people are covered by basic medical insurance plans. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We improved the national platform for trans-provincial settlement of medical bills through basic medical insurance accounts. We have ensured there are hospitals designated for trans-provincial settlement in all county-level administrative areas, and have seen that rural migrant workers and other workers and business owners without local residency have been incorporated into the platform. The total number of trans-provincial on-the-spot settlements has reached 1.526 million. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Smooth progress was made in the pilot program in integrating maternity insurance and basic medical insurance for urban workers. Unemployment insurance functioned more effectively in terms of ensuring basic living standards, preventing job losses, and promoting employment. Improvements were made to the policies regarding rural migrant workers' participation in workers' compensation schemes. The subsistence allowance system continued to improve as we achieved full coverage for urban and rural residents and ensured continuous improvements in allowance standards. 


                                                                                                                                                                            More was done to assist demobilized military personnel in finding employment, and living allowances were raised for demobilized personnel with illness, for war and nuclear-test veterans, and for other entitled groups. The social welfare services system was strengthened, and trials for integrated reforms in social assistance were pushed forward. Steady progress was made in the construction of government-subsidized housing in urban areas, and renovations began on 6.26 million units of housing in run-down urban areas, and an additional 1 million units of public-rented housing were allocated. The housing rental market developed rapidly in large and medium-sized cities. A total of 1.9 million dilapidated houses in rural areas were renovated.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是基本公共服务标准体系加快构建。建立健全基本公共服务标准体系的指导意见出台实施,基本公共服务省级清单实现全覆盖。教育现代化推进、全民健康保障、文化旅游提升、公共体育普及、社会服务兜底五大公共服务工程大力推进。九年义务教育巩固率达94.2%,高中阶段教育毛入学率达88.8%,财政性教育经费支出占国内生产总值比例继续超过4%。“互联网+医疗健康”快速发展,公立医院综合改革继续深化,国家基本药物制度进一步完善,药品集中采购和使用试点稳妥推进,境外上市新药审评审批加快,进口抗癌药全部实现零关税,17种抗癌药大幅降价并纳入医保报销目录,疫苗药品安全问题加快解决。每千人口医疗卫生机构床位数预计达6.05张。加强文物保护利用改革的若干意见印发实施,各类遗产资源保护状态得到有效改善。大运河文化保护传承利用规划纲要编制完成。公共文化设施免费开放工作持续开展,百万公里健身步道工程实施方案出台,新增体育场地8.2万个。社会兜底保障加强,困难残疾人生活补贴制度惠及940万人,1164万重度残疾人享受护理补贴。孤儿保障制度惠及39.8万孤儿,为全国残疾孤儿实施医疗康复。持续开展孕期优生优育服务,妇女关爱服务体系不断健全。公共法律服务体系继续完善。全年出生人口1523万人,年末总人口达13.95亿人,人口自然增长率为3.81‰。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) Development of a system of standards for basic public services progressed quickly. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The Guidelines on Establishing a Sound System of Standards for Basic Public Services were unveiled, and all provincial-level governments released basic public service lists. Strong progress was made in the five major public service categories of modernizing education, ensuring a healthy population, elevating culture and tourism, promoting fitness among the public, and providing social services for groups that are most in need. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The retention rate of nine-year compulsory education hit 94.2%, and the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 88.8%. Government spending on education as a percentage of GDP remained above 4%. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We made rapid progress in developing the Internet Plus Medical and Healthcare model, and stepped up the comprehensive public hospital reform. The national system of essential medicines was improved. Trials for centralizing the procurement and use of medicines made steady progress, and the time it takes to assess and approve new drugs coming into the Chinese market was cut. A zero-tariff policy was applied to all imported cancer treatment drugs, while 17 types of cancer treatment drugs were made available at much lower prices and their costs can now be reimbursed through medical insurance. More measures were quickly taken to address problems pertaining to the safety of vaccines and medicines. The number of beds in medical and healthcare institutions is predicted to have reached 6.05 per 1,000 people. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The Guidelines on the Reform to Better Protect Cultural Relics and Put Them to Better Use were published, and the protection for cultural heritage of all types markedly improved. The Plan for Protecting, Passing On, and Utilizing Grand Canal Culture was drawn up. We continued working to offer free access to more public cultural facilities, unveiled an implementation plan for the initiative to build one million kilometers of fitness walkways, and opened 82,000 new sports venues. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We strengthened social security programs to meet basic needs. A total of 9.4 million people with disabilities facing financial difficulties received living allowances, and 11.64 million people with serious disabilities received nursing care subsidies. Around 398,000 children benefited from the subsistence allowance system for orphans, and medical rehabilitation services were provided to orphaned children with disabilities around the country. Better pre- and post-natal care services were ensured, and the support and care system for women was improved. The public legal service system also continued to improve. A total of 15.23 million babies were born in 2018, bringing the total population at year end to 1.395 billion. The natural population growth rate was 3.81‰.


                                                                                                                                                                            总的来看,2018年经济社会发展主要目标任务较好完成,三大攻坚战开局良好,供给侧结构性改革深入推进,改革开放力度加大,人民生活持续改善,保持了经济平稳健康发展和社会大局稳定,朝着实现全面建成小康社会的目标迈出了新的步伐。在极为错综复杂的国内外形势下,我国经济社会发展取得这样的成绩来之不易,需要倍加珍惜。这是以习近平同志为核心的党中央举旗定向、谋篇布局、坚强领导的结果,是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想全面引领、科学指导、成功实践的结果,是全党全国各族人民团结一心、砥砺前行、真抓实干的结果。



                                                                                                                                                                            Overall, the main targets and tasks in economic and social development for 2018 were well accomplished. We got off to a good start in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, continued driving forward supply-side structural reform, and elevated the intensity of reform and opening up. Living standards continued rising; economic development was kept on a stable, sound track; overall social stability was maintained, and we took fresh strides toward completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Given the extreme complexity of the domestic and international contexts, these achievements were not easily attained, and it is important to fully recognize their value. They are the result of the guiding principles and strategies, well-crafted plans and arrangements, and strong leadership provided by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core; the result of the overall vision, sound guidance, and successful practices offered by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; and the result of the strong unity, firmness of purpose, and pragmatic and persistent efforts of the Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups.


                                                                                                                                                                            从2018年经济社会发展情况看,经济增长、就业、价格总水平、国际收支平衡等主要指标保持在合理区间,创新驱动、资源节约、生态保护、社会保障等反映高质量发展的指标进一步改善,19个约束性指标中,18个指标完成全年目标,万元国内生产总值用水量下降指标完成情况与全年目标存在差距。该指标2018年计划目标为下降5.2%,初步统计数为下降5.1%,低于计划目标0.1个百分点。主要原因是,2018年全国降水量下降使得地表水资源总量减少约800亿立方米,部分地区受干旱影响,农业从河流抽取的灌溉用水量增加;南水北调工程向华北地区进行生态补水,全国生态用水量较2017年有较大增加,综合因素使得万元国内生产总值用水量降幅低于全年目标0.1个百分点。



                                                                                                                                                                            From an economic and social development standpoint, the major indicators, such as economic growth, employment, the CPI, and the balance of payments, all remained within an appropriate range in 2018, while there were further improvements for indicators that reflect the quality of development, such as innovation capacity, resource conservation, environmental protection, and social security. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Of the 19 indicators with obligatory annual targets, 18 met their targets, while there was a discrepancy between the projected target for water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP and the actual performance. The target for 2018 was a 5.2% decrease; however, according to preliminary statistics, the actual decrease was 5.1%, 0.1 percentage point lower than the targeted figure. The main reasons for this are as follows: Due to a drop in annual precipitation in 2018, China's total surface water resources decreased by 80 billion cubic meters, and more water was drawn from rivers used for agricultural irrigation in some drought-affected regions. As water ecosystems in northern China were replenished with water from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, China's water consumption for ecological purposes increased significantly compared with 2017. All these factors resulted in the above 0.1-percentage-point discrepancy.



                                                                                                                                                                            46个预期性指标中,44个指标运行情况符合或好于年度预期目标,但社会融资规模存量增长率和城镇居民人均可支配收入指标实际运行值与预期值存在一定差距。关于社会融资规模存量增长率,该指标2018年预期目标为“与2017年实际增速基本持平”,2017年末社会融资规模存量增长13.4%,2018年末实际增长9.8%,与预期目标存在一定差距。为了给供给侧结构性改革营造适宜的货币金融环境,在对实体经济提供稳定融资支持的同时,主动采取了规范地方政府隐性债务以及合理控制投向房地产、环评不达标企业、产能过剩等领域的资金和抑制资金脱实向虚、减少资金空转等措施,社会融资规模存量增长率虽低于预期目标,但与名义GDP增长基本匹配。关于城镇居民人均可支配收入增速,该指标2018年预期目标为“与经济增长基本同步”,2018年GDP增长6.6%,城镇居民人均可支配收入实际增长5.6%,与预期目标存在一定差距。主要是受经济下行压力加大、实体经济特别是小微企业困难增多、部分行业企业利润有所下滑等影响,工资性收入等增长放缓,使得全国城镇居民人均可支配收入增速低于预期目标。



                                                                                                                                                                            Out of the 46 indicators with anticipatory targets, 44 either met or surpassed targets. The actual growth of aggregate financing in the economy and per capita disposable income of urban residents fell somewhat short of the targets. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The growth of aggregate financing for 2018 was targeted to be roughly in line with the previous year's actual growth rate. With growth in real terms of 13.4% at the end of 2017, the 9.8% figure at the end of 2018 was short of expectations. The reasons for this are as follows: To create a favorable monetary and financial environment for supply-side structural reform, we took measures to regulate the hidden debts of local governments and to appropriately control the flow of funds to the real estate sector, to enterprises that failed environmental impact assessments, and to industries with overcapacity. We also sought to prevent funds from being diverted out of the real economy and from circulating solely within the financial sector. At the same time, we continued ensuring stable financing support for the real economy. The growth of aggregate financing for the year fell short of the anticipatory target, but it was still basically in keeping with GDP growth in nominal terms.


                                                                                                                                                                            Urban per capita disposable income in 2018 was targeted to stay largely in step with economic growth. GDP growth in 2018 was 6.6%, and urban per capita disposable income increased by 5.6% in real terms, lower than the anticipatory target. This can be attributed to the increasing downward pressure on the economy, more difficulties in the real economy, especially for small and micro enterprises, a decline in the profits of enterprises in some sectors, and slower growth of salary-based incomes. 



                                                                                                                                                                            同时,我们也清醒认识到,经济运行总体平稳、稳中有进,但稳中有变、变中有忧。从国际形势看,世界大变局加速深刻演变,全球动荡源和风险点增多,我国外部环境复杂严峻。世界经济虽有望延续复苏态势,但保护主义、单边主义加剧,主要发达经济体货币政策调整的外溢效应持续显现,部分新兴经济体面临的风险增多,国际大宗商品价格波动加剧,地缘政治风险累积发酵,全球经济贸易增速趋缓。从国内形势看,一是经济面临下行压力。内需增长放缓,基础设施、制造业、房地产开发等领域投资保持平稳增长的难度加大。受居民增收困难较多、汽车等传统消费放缓等因素影响,消费稳定增长面临挑战。二是农业农村基础仍然薄弱。农业科技水平仍待提升,农村基本公共服务供给和基础设施建设仍然滞后,农民增收渠道有待拓宽。三是实体经济面临困难增多。民营企业特别是小微企业融资难融资贵问题尚未有效解决,存在对民营企业惜贷压贷甚至直接抽贷断贷的现象,能源、原材料、人工、用地等成本较高,企业盈利空间受到挤压。营商环境有待进一步优化,公平竞争的市场机制尚不完善,产权和知识产权保护仍不充分,亲清新型政商关系仍不健全。四是高质量发展的短板制约仍待突破。重大原创性科技成果不多,一些关键核心技术受制于人,科技成果转化效率不高。产业结构还需进一步优化,发展新动能仍然不足。部分地区能源资源约束趋紧,生态环境问题依然突出。五是区域分化态势仍在持续。中西部一些地区结构调整难度较大,一些地区要素吸引力较弱,人才等优质要素资源外流比较严重,发展困难可能会增加。六是重点领域风险压力较大。外部环境不确定性可能通过贸易、跨境资本流动、大宗商品市场等渠道,加大我国输入性风险,国内股市、债市、汇市、互联网金融和房地产的风险隐患不容忽视。七是社会民生领域还存在不少问题挑战。部分省份就业结构性矛盾显现,居民持续增收制约因素增多,教育、医疗、养老等公共服务供给不足,人口老龄化程度不断加深。同时,我们在工作中还存在一些不足,有的政策制定的前瞻性、针对性、有效性还不够,没有充分考虑企业的适应程度问题;有的政策部门间统筹协调有待加强,有的改革举措和政策落实效果不彰,有的专项规划和项目建设需要及时启动;有的地方在政策执行过程中存在简单化、“一刀切”的问题。



                                                                                                                                                                            Recognizing our achievements, we are also keenly aware that although the performance of the economy is stable and improving, this stability is punctuated by changes, some of which give cause for concern. 


                                                                                                                                                                            From an international standpoint, we are facing major changes that are deepening and evolving at a faster pace, and the sources of disruption and risk are increasing. These factors make for a complicated and grave external environment for China. Continued recovery of the global economy can be expected. But protectionism and unilateralism are intensifying, the spillover effects of monetary policy adjustments by major developed economies are becoming more evident, and some emerging economies are facing greater risks. The prices of major commodities are fluctuating sharply, geopolitical risks are building, and world economic and trade growth are slackening. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Domestically, there are also unfavorable factors. First, China's economy still faces downward pressure. Slowing domestic demand growth is making it harder to sustain steady investment growth in the three major areas of infrastructure, manufacturing, and real estate development. We also face challenges in ensuring steady growth in consumer spending due to the many difficulties in increasing personal income, and softer growth in traditional forms of consumption like purchases of automobiles. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Second, the foundation of agriculture and rural infrastructure remain weak. The level of agricultural technologies needs to be improved, basic public services and infrastructure construction lag behind in rural areas, and broader channels need to be developed for rural residents to increase their incomes. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Third, the real economy faces mounting difficulties. Private companies are still finding it both tough and expensive to access financing, particularly small and micro companies. There is also some reluctance to lend to private companies and there are cases of loans being withheld, withdrawn, or cancelled. Enterprise profits are being squeezed by the rising costs of energy, raw materials, labor, and land use. The business environment requires further improvement. Flaws still exist in the market mechanisms for ensuring fair competition, more protection is needed for property and intellectual property rights, and there is still work to be done in building a new type of cordial and clean relationship between government and business. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Fourth, points of weakness affecting high-quality development need to be addressed. We produce a low number of major original scientific and technological outputs, rely too much on others for key and core technologies in certain fields, and perform poorly in putting scientific and technological achievements into practical application. Our industrial structure needs further improvement, and stronger growth drivers need to be fostered. In certain localities, energy and resource constraints are tightening and ecological and environmental problems are still grave. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Fifth, regional disparities continue to grow. Some localities in the central and western regions face grave difficulties in making structural adjustments, while other areas do not hold enough appeal to keep factors of production, leading to a serious outflow of talent and other high-quality factors. These issues have the potential to exacerbate the development problems of these areas. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Sixth, potential risks in key areas are grave. External uncertainties have the potential to intensify the inflow of risks into China through trade, cross-border capital flows, and commodity markets. Meanwhile, risks at home in the stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets, in internet finance, and in real estate cannot be overlooked. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Seventh, there are many problems and challenges affecting the people's wellbeing. Structural employment problems have emerged in some provinces, and the factors hindering personal income growth are increasing. There is insufficient supply in education, healthcare, elderly, and other public services, and the problem of population aging is becoming more serious. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Shortcomings can also be identified in our own work. Some of our policies are not as forward-looking, targeted, or effective as they need to be, and they fail to fully take into account the adjustments they impose on enterprises. Coordination between some government departments needs to be strengthened to ensure effective implementation of reform measures and policies and to see that special plans and projects are launched promptly. And some localities tend to implement policies in an oversimplified or one-size-fits-all fashion. 


                                                                                                                                                                            对上述问题,我们将高度重视,既要增强忧患意识、坚持底线思维,抓住主要矛盾,有针对性地加以解决,有效防范各类风险连锁联动、叠加传导;又要紧扣社会主要矛盾的变化,全面用好我国发展的重要战略机遇期,保持战略定力、坚定必胜信心,化挑战为机遇、变压力为动力,加快推动经济高质量发展。



                                                                                                                                                                            These are issues that we must take very seriously. In responding to them, we will raise our awareness of potential dangers, remain mindful of worst-case scenarios, focus on prominent problems, and take targeted measures that deliver solutions and effectively prevent risks from coalescing into chain reactions and causing ripple effects. We will respond to the change in the principal contradiction in Chinese society and take full advantage of the important period of strategic opportunity for China's development. We will maintain strategic focus, firm up our confidence of success, and turn challenges into opportunities and pressure into motivation, in order to spur high-quality economic development.


                                                                                                                                                                            二、2019年经济社会发展总体要求、主要目标和政策取向



                                                                                                                                                                            II. General Requirements, Main Targets, and Policy Direction for Economic and Social Development in 2019


                                                                                                                                                                            2019年是新中国成立70周年,是全面建成小康社会、实现第一个百年奋斗目标的关键之年,做好经济社会发展工作至关重要。



                                                                                                                                                                            The year 2019 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, and it is a crucial year for bringing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects to a successful completion and thus realizing our first Centenary Goal. Therefore it is of great importance that we accomplish all economic and social development work for the year.


                                                                                                                                                                            (一)总体要求。



                                                                                                                                                                            1. General Requirements 



                                                                                                                                                                            2019年,要在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,坚持新发展理念,坚持推动高质量发展,坚持以供给侧结构性改革为主线,坚持深化市场化改革、扩大高水平开放,加快建设现代化经济体系,继续打好三大攻坚战,着力激发微观主体活力,创新和完善宏观调控,统筹推进稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生、防风险、保稳定工作,保持经济运行在合理区间,进一步稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期,提振市场信心,增强人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,保持经济持续健康发展和社会大局稳定,为全面建成小康社会收官打下决定性基础,以优异成绩庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年。



                                                                                                                                                                            In 2019, we must follow the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. We must fully implement the guiding principles from the 19th CPC National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee, and coordinate efforts to pursue the five-sphere integrated plan and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We must stay committed to the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, to the new development philosophy, and to promoting high-quality development. Keeping supply-side structural reform as our main task, we must deepen market-based reforms, expand high-standard opening up, and speed up our efforts to develop a modernized economy. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We need to ensure continued success in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution and, with strong moves, unlock the vitality of our micro entities. We need to develop new and improved approaches to macro regulation, and take coordinated steps to achieve steady growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, guard against risk, and ensure stability. We must keep major economic indicators within an appropriate range and work to ensure stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We need to bolster market confidence, see that our people feel more satisfied, happier, and more secure, and ensure sustained, healthy economic development and overall social stability. In meeting these requirements, we will lay a decisive foundation for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China with outstanding achievements.


                                                                                                                                                                            在具体工作中,必须牢牢把握中央经济工作会议精神,深刻把握重要战略机遇新内涵,切实做到“五个坚定不移”。一是坚定不移以供给侧结构性改革为主线。更多采取改革的办法,更多运用市场化、法治化手段,在“巩固、增强、提升、畅通”八个字上下功夫,着力提高供给体系质量。二是坚定不移推动高质量发展。有效发挥高质量发展指标体系的导向作用,加快建设现代化经济体系,加大实施创新驱动发展战略力度,深入推进军民融合发展,扎扎实实抓好政策落实,久久为功增强发展韧性。三是坚定不移促进形成强大国内市场。紧扣社会主要矛盾变化,通过扎实推进高质量发展、深化供给侧结构性改革,不断释放和满足国内市场需求,促进提升中长期发展潜力,推动经济持续健康发展。四是坚定不移打好三大攻坚战。着眼全面建成小康社会全局目标,坚持底线思维,抓住主要矛盾,精准施策,攻坚克难,确保如期完成任务,切实增强群众获得感。五是坚定不移深化市场化改革扩大高水平开放。制定出台实施一批既利当前、更利长远的改革开放举措,大力增强市场主体活力,充分调动社会各方面积极性、主动性、创造性。



                                                                                                                                                                            In undertaking specific work, we must keep firmly in mind the guiding principles from the Central Economic Work Conference, grasp the significance of the current important period of strategic opportunity, and remain committed to the following five missions: 


                                                                                                                                                                            First, pursuing supply-side structural reform as our main task. We need to implement more reforms and employ more approaches consistent with market principles and the rule of law. We must work hard to consolidate the gains made in the five priority tasks, to strengthen the dynamism of micro entities, to upgrade industrial chains, and to ensure unimpeded flows in the economy. These efforts would help boost the quality of our supply systems. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Second, promoting high-quality development. We should employ a complete set of indicators to provide guidance on high-quality development, move faster to develop a modernized economy, step up implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, and extensively promote military-civilian integration. We will take concrete steps to ensure policies get implemented, and commit to persistent efforts to boost the resilience of development. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Third, developing a strong domestic market. Responding to the change in the principal contradiction facing Chinese society, we should strive for strong progress in high-quality development and deepen supply-side structural reform to keep unlocking and meeting demand in the domestic market. We also need to increase the potential for development over the medium- and long-term to promote healthy and sustainable economic development.


                                                                                                                                                                            Fourth, fighting the battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution. Staying focused on the overall objective of finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we need to be prepared for worst-case scenarios, identify key problems, adopt targeted policies, and tackle major difficulties to ensure all tasks are accomplished on schedule and bring a stronger sense of fulfillment to our people. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Fifth, furthering market-based reforms and expanding high-standard opening up. We need to devise a series of reform and opening up measures that are good for the near term and even better in the long run. We need to work on boosting the vitality of market entities and give full play to the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of all sectors of society.


                                                                                                                                                                            同时,着力把握好三个关系。一是统筹好国内与国际的关系,既重视应对外部变化,更注重立足国内发展,敢于应对挑战,善于化危为机,着力办好自己的事,稳妥有序解决好国内长期积累的体制性结构性矛盾;二是平衡好稳增长与防风险的关系,在稳定经济增长、推动高质量发展中应对挑战、化解风险,继续保持宏观政策的连续性稳定性,把握好防风险的节奏和力度,避免形成不利于稳预期、稳增长、调结构的叠加效应,确保经济运行在合理区间;三是处理好政府与市场的关系,更多运用改革创新的办法发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,更好发挥政府作用,增强宏观政策的稳定性、有效性,进一步激发微观主体活力、增强内生动力。



                                                                                                                                                                            While fulfilling the above missions, we also need to properly balance the following three relationships. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The first relationship is that between domestic and international imperatives. We should put a strong emphasis on responding to changes in the external environment, but more importantly, we need to focus on domestic development. We need to face challenges squarely, skillfully turn risks into opportunities, and put our own house in order by solving longstanding institutional and structural problems in a prudent and systematic fashion. The second is that between maintaining steady growth and preventing risks. We need to address challenges and defuse risks while working to keep growth steady and promote high-quality development. We need to maintain the continuity and stability of our macro policies, keep the right pace and intensity in preventing risks, and avoid the building of cumulative effects that are detrimental to keeping expectations stable, maintaining steady growth, and making structural adjustments, to ensure the economy operates within an appropriate range. The third is that between the government and the market. We need to make more use of reform and innovation to ensure the market plays the decisive role in allocating resources and the government better fulfills its role. While keeping macro policies more stable and effective, we need to further energize micro entities and boost the internal forces driving economic growth.


                                                                                                                                                                            (二)主要预期目标。



                                                                                                                                                                            2. Main Targets 


                                                                                                                                                                            按照上述总体要求和工作思路,综合考虑需要和可能,提出2019年经济社会发展主要预期目标:



                                                                                                                                                                            Keeping in mind the above general requirements and considerations, we have set the following targets for economic and social development for 2019 on the basis of what is necessary and what is possible.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——经济增长保持在合理区间。国内生产总值增长预期目标为6%-6.5%。主要考虑:一是充分估计经济运行中的不稳定不确定因素,按照实事求是的原则,适当调整经济增长预期目标。同时,考虑到经济增速的季节波动,采用区间式预期目标增加弹性。二是保持合理的经济增长速度,目的是满足新增就业的需要,并为推动高质量发展、深化供给侧结构性改革、打好三大攻坚战提供必要的宏观环境,有利于稳定市场预期。三是这一预期目标与当前我国经济增长潜力相符,与今年一、二、三次产业增长预期目标相匹配,三次产业稳定增长可以为经济保持中高速增长提供有力支撑。



                                                                                                                                                                            Economic growth within an appropriate range


                                                                                                                                                                            The projected target for GDP growth is 6%-6.5%. In making this projection, we have taken the following into account. First, taking a pragmatic approach, we have made a moderate adjustment to our projection on the basis of a thorough assessment of destabilizing factors and uncertainties affecting the economic performance. Further, taking account of seasonal fluctuations in economic growth, we have adopted a range-based projection to increase elasticity. Second, we need to maintain an appropriate pace of growth to meet the needs for job creation and provide the necessary macro environment for promoting high-quality development, advancing supply-side structural reform, and progressing the three critical battles. This projection also helps keep market expectations stable. Third, this target is consistent with the growth potential of the Chinese economy at present as well as our growth forecasts for the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. Steady increases in all three industries would ensure a strong underpinning for a medium-high growth rate.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——经济发展质量和效益不断提升。着力巩固“三去一降一补”成果,宏观杠杆率基本稳定,财政金融风险有效防控;全员劳动生产率增长6.3%,科技进步贡献率达到59.2%,研究与试验发展经费投入强度达到2.2%;全国常住人口城镇化率达到60.6%,户籍人口城镇化率达到44.4%;生态环境进一步改善,细颗粒物(PM2.5)未达标地级及以上城市浓度下降2%,单位国内生产总值能耗降低3%左右,单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放量下降3.6%左右,主要污染物排放量继续下降;城乡居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步,社会保障覆盖面进一步扩大,教育、卫生、文化、养老等基本公共服务均等化水平进一步提高。更加重视这些反映质量、效益和结构的指标,主要考虑是坚持新发展理念,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,按照质量第一、效益优先的原则,更好体现高质量发展在供给、需求、投入产出、分配、宏观经济循环等方面的特征,不断提高人民群众的获得感和幸福感。



                                                                                                                                                                            Consistent improvements in the quality and effect of development


                                                                                                                                                                            We will work hard to build on the progress made in the five priority tasks and keep the macro leverage ratio basically stable and fiscal and financial risks under control. We have set the following targets: Per capita labor productivity will grow by 6.3%, the contribution of scientific and technological advances to economic growth will reach 59.2%, and R&D spending as a percentage of GDP will rise to 2.2%. The urban population will account for 60.6% of the total as measured by permanent urban residents and 44.4% as measured by registered urban residents. 


                                                                                                                                                                            The environment will see further improvements. PM2.5 concentrations will drop by 2% in cities at and above prefecture level that fell short of the national PM2.5 standards, energy consumption per unit of GDP will decrease by about 3%, carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will fall by about 3.6%, and emissions of major pollutants will continue to decline. Increases in urban and rural personal income will be basically on par with economic growth, the social safety net will cover more people, and access to educational, health, cultural, elderly care, and other basic public services will be made more equitable. 


                                                                                                                                                                            In giving greater weight to these indicators, which reflect the quality and effect of growth and the structural adjustments of the economy, we want to primarily ensure that we are acting on the new development philosophy, putting the vision of people-centered development into practice, and following the principle of giving priority to the quality and effect of growth. These steps will ensure high-quality development is more evident in areas like supply and demand, inputs and outputs, income distribution, and the macroeconomic cycle, and that people enjoy a stronger sense of satisfaction and happiness.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——就业形势总体稳定。城镇新增就业预期目标为1100万人以上;全国城镇调查失业率和城镇登记失业率预期目标分别为5.5%左右和4.5%以内。关于城镇新增就业总量:既包含了2019年新成长劳动力在城镇的就业需求,也为去产能职工安置、失业人员再就业、农村劳动力转移就业留有一定空间。从经济基本面和经济增长对就业的吸纳能力看,6%-6.5%的经济增速能够实现新增就业岗位目标。关于失业率:将全国城镇调查失业率控制在5.5%左右,主要是考虑到进出口国际经济环境不确定影响和高校毕业生增加等因素,较好体现稳就业的决心以及实施就业优先、强化就业保障的政策导向。从全国城镇登记失业率看,近年来一直保持在4%左右,按4.5%以内考虑,主要是考虑到数据的季节性波动,适当留有余地。同时,从全年来看,争取更好结果,把失业率控制在相对较低水平。



                                                                                                                                                                            Overall stability in employment


                                                                                                                                                                            This year's target for urban job creation is above 11 million, and the targets for the survey-based and registered urban unemployment rates are about 5.5% and below 4.5%, respectively. The target for urban job creation takes into account new entrants to the workforce in 2019, and allows leeway for arrangements to be made for workers displaced due to overcapacity cuts, workers returning to the workforce after unemployment, and rural residents moving into nonfarm jobs. Given our economic fundamentals and the capacity of economic growth to create jobs, GDP growth of 6%-6.5% should enable us to achieve this year's employment target. Regarding the jobless rate, the survey-based target of about 5.5% takes account of the impact of uncertainties in the international economic environment on imports and exports and the increase in the number of college graduates this year. This target is also a reflection of our determination to keep employment stable and our policy orientation toward prioritizing employment and bolstering job security. The registered urban unemployment rate has held steady around 4% in recent years. In setting the target at below 4.5% this year, we have made allowances for seasonal data fluctuations. However, we will strive for better results over the year to keep the jobless rate at a relatively low level.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——价格总水平基本稳定。居民消费价格涨幅预期目标为3%左右。主要考虑:从翘尾因素看,2019年居民消费价格中的翘尾因素约为0.7个百分点。从新涨价因素看,受非洲猪瘟疫情等影响,一些食品价格可能上涨;服务价格可能保持涨势,进口大宗商品价格上行的可能性依然存在。



                                                                                                                                                                            Basic stability in the overall level of prices


                                                                                                                                                                            The CPI is projected to rise by about 3%. This target takes the following into account. The carryover effect from last year's CPI increase is expected to be 0.7 percentage point. Under the influence of new factors, such as African swine fever, food prices may rise; the upward trend in service prices may persist, and the possibility of rising prices for imported commodities also remains.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——国际收支保持基本平衡。进出口稳中提质。主要考虑:从必要性看,在风险挑战增多情况下,保持国际收支基本平衡和合理规模外汇储备,有利于稳定经济金融和市场预期。从可行性看,2019年全球经济贸易增长态势仍有望延续,我国将举办第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛和第二届中国国际进口博览会,都有利于进出口稳定增长。同时,考虑到单边主义、贸易保护主义对我国进出口的影响,特别是中美经贸摩擦的不确定性因素,要在稳定外贸基本盘的前提下,促进贸易结构优化、质量提升。



                                                                                                                                                                            A basic equilibrium in the balance of payments


                                                                                                                                                                            For imports and exports, we have set a target of ensuring stability while improving quality. This target takes the following into consideration. In terms of what is necessary, as risks and challenges increase, a basic equilibrium in the balance of payments and a reasonable level of foreign exchange reserves will help ensure economic and financial stability and keep market expectations stable. In terms of what is possible, we believe that the predicted continuation of global economic and trade growth and China's hosting of the second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation and the second China International Import Expo can help achieve a steady increase in imports and exports. We will also promote improvements in the composition and quality of trade, under the condition that the overall state of foreign trade remains stable and with consideration to the impact of unilateralism and trade protectionism on China's imports and exports, particularly the uncertainties arising from economic and trade frictions between China and the United States.


                                                                                                                                                                            (三)主要政策取向。



                                                                                                                                                                            3. Main Policy Direction 


                                                                                                                                                                            宏观政策要强化逆周期调节,继续实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策,适时预调微调。结构性政策要强化体制机制建设,坚持向改革要动力,深化国资国企、财税金融、土地、市场准入、社会管理等领域改革。社会政策要强化兜底保障功能,实施就业优先政策,确保群众基本生活底线,寓管理于服务之中。



                                                                                                                                                                            In macro policy, we will strengthen counter-cyclical regulation, continue to implement a proactive fiscal policy and prudent monetary policy, and carry out anticipatory adjustments and fine-tuning as appropriate. In structural policy, we will strengthen institution building and look to reform to drive development, pushing for deeper reforms in state capital, SOE, fiscal, tax, and financial systems, land, market access, and social management. In social policy, we will guarantee the provision of social services to those most in need, implement a jobs first policy, ensure people's basic needs are met, and strengthen management in service delivery.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——积极的财政政策要加力提效。2019年财政赤字率拟按2.8%安排,比上年预算高0.2个百分点;财政赤字2.76万亿元,比上年预算增加3800亿元;同时,较大幅度增加地方政府专项债券规模。实施更大规模的减税降费,深化增值税改革、实质性降低增值税税率,全面实施修改后的个人所得税法及其实施条例,明显降低企业社保缴费负担。调整优化财政支出结构,一般性支出压减5%以上、“三公”经费再压减3%左右,切实保障重点支出,发挥好财政资金精准补短板和民生兜底作用,增加对脱贫攻坚、“三农”、结构调整、科技创新、生态环保、民生等领域投入。更好发挥转移支付作用,继续较大幅度增加中央对地方转移支付,改革完善县级基本财力保障机制,增强困难地区和基层政府保基本民生能力。



                                                                                                                                                                            Implementing a stronger and more effective proactive fiscal policy


                                                                                                                                                                            The debt-to-GDP ratio for the year is projected to be 2.8%, which is 0.2 percentage point higher than the projection last year. The government deficit is set at 2.76 trillion yuan, 380 billion yuan more than last year's budgeted figure. Furthermore, we will considerably scale up special bonds for local governments. We will impose broader cuts on taxes and fees, deepen VAT reform, substantially lower VAT rates, fully implement the revised Law on Individual Income Tax and regulations on its implementation, and markedly reduce the burden of social insurance contributions on enterprises. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will adjust and improve the composition of government expenditures. General expenditures will be cut by over 5%, and spending on official overseas visits, official vehicles, and official hospitality will be cut by another 3%, while funding for key expenditures will be guaranteed. Government funds will be leveraged to strengthen points of weakness in a targeted way and to provide a safety net for those most in need, with more funding for poverty alleviation, agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents, and for structural adjustments, scientific and technological innovation, ecological conservation and environmental protection, and people's wellbeing. Giving better play to transfer payments, we will continue the large-scale increases in transfer payments to local governments, and reform and improve the mechanisms for ensuring basic funding for county-level governments to see that poor areas and local governments are better able to meet people's basic living needs.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——稳健的货币政策要松紧适度。广义货币(M2)和社会融资规模增速与国内生产总值名义增速相匹配,与2018年实际增速基本持平,以更好满足经济运行保持在合理区间的需要。灵活运用多种货币政策工具组合,保持流动性合理充裕和市场利率水平合理稳定。改善货币政策传导机制,加强货币政策与金融监管等协调配合,深化利率市场化改革,提高直接融资比重,有效缓解实体经济特别是制造业企业和小微企业、民营企业融资难融资贵问题。进一步完善汇率形成机制,增强人民币汇率弹性,加强跨境资本流动监管,保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。着力保持股市、债市、汇市稳定并及时应对异常波动,防范化解金融风险隐患。



                                                                                                                                                                            Implementing a prudent monetary policy with an appropriate level of intensity


                                                                                                                                                                            Aggregate financing and the M2 money supply in 2019 will keep pace with nominal GDP growth and be roughly in line with last year's real growth rates. This will ensure both indicators better satisfy the requirement of keeping the economy performing within an appropriate range. We will employ a combination of monetary policy tools with flexibility, maintain reasonable and ample liquidity, and keep market interest rates stable at an appropriate level. We will improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy and ensure better coordination and support between monetary policy and financial regulation. We will move forward market-based interest rate reforms, increase the proportion of direct financing, and effectively ease problems in the real economy, especially for the manufacturing firms, small and micro businesses, and private enterprises that are finding it tough and expensive to access financing. 


                                                                                                                                                                            With a view to further improving the RMB exchange rate regime, we will increase the exchange rate's flexibility, enhance oversight over cross-border capital flows, and ensure the RMB exchange rate stays generally stable at an adaptive, equilibrium level. Working hard to keep stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets stable, we will respond swiftly to any abnormal fluctuations and guard against and defuse financial risks and hidden dangers.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——就业优先政策要全面发力。把稳定和促进就业作为经济社会发展的优先目标,完善就业促进政策体系,更好发挥大众创业、万众创新对扩大就业的支撑作用。促进就业容量大的服务业和部分劳动密集型产业发展,支持民营企业、中小微企业更好发挥就业主渠道作用,促进高校毕业生、退役军人、下岗职工、农民工等群体就业,大规模开展职业技能培训,加大对灵活就业、新就业形态的支持,加强全方位公共就业服务,努力在推动经济高质量发展中实现更高质量和更充分就业。



                                                                                                                                                                            Implementing a jobs first policy with all-out efforts


                                                                                                                                                                            Ensuring stability in employment and promoting job creation will be priorities in economic and social development. We will improve pro-employment policies and give better play to the crucial role of business startups and innovation initiatives in creating jobs. We will promote the development of some labor-intensive industries and the service sector, which provides large numbers of employment opportunities, and support private enterprises and medium, small, and micro businesses in creating more jobs. We will help college graduates, demobilized military personnel, laid-off workers, and rural migrant workers find employment, and launch large-scale vocational skills training initiatives. We will give more support to flexible and new forms of employment, provide better, all-round public employment services, and strive to see that, in the course of pursuing high-quality economic development, we also achieve higher-quality, fuller employment.


                                                                                                                                                                            ——强化政策统筹协调。进一步做好顶层设计,增强政策的连续性、稳定性和协同性,把握好政策出台的时机和力度,发挥国家发展规划的战略导向作用,更加注重年度国民经济和社会发展计划与“十三五”规划《纲要》实施的衔接,健全财政、货币、产业、区域等经济政策协调机制,探索建立宏观经济政策评估机制,防止出现政策不协调不配套,避免政策效应出现负向叠加、反向对冲等情况。产业政策要坚持普惠化、功能性,加强对优化供给结构、提高供给质量的支持。强化竞争政策的基础性地位,着眼于使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,加强公平竞争审查和反垄断、反不正当竞争执法,规范政府行为,打破行政垄断和地方保护,优化和完善技术、环保、质量、安全等标准,降低市场准入门槛,完善产权制度和市场退出制度,营造公平竞争的制度环境,进一步构建和完善全国统一大市场,鼓励中小企业加快成长。区域政策要加快落实区域协调发展战略,因地制宜、分类指导,发挥比较优势,引导要素有序流动,健全区域合作机制和市场一体化发展机制。加快构建城乡融合发展体制机制和政策体系。完善农业转移人口市民化政策体系,推动农民工及随迁家属平等享受城镇基本公共服务,在人口转移和城乡建设中激发内需潜力。



                                                                                                                                                                            Stepping up overall policy planning and coordination


                                                                                                                                                                            We will further improve top-level design to make policies more consistent, more stable, and better coordinated and ensure we get the timing and intensity right when enacting policies. We will look to our national development plans for strategic guidance and put greater emphasis on aligning annual economic and social development plans with the 13th Five-Year Plan. We will enhance the mechanisms for coordinating fiscal, monetary, industrial, regional, and other economic policies and undertake explorations on establishing an evaluation mechanism for macroeconomic policy. With these efforts, we will avoid cases where policies are uncoordinated or lack supplementary instruments or where they adversely overlap or even clash with one another. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We must keep industrial policy inclusive and functional and see it better supports efforts to improve the structure and quality of supply. We will strengthen the fundamental position of competition policies to ensure the market plays the decisive role in resource allocation and the government better plays its role. We will step up fair competition reviews and enforcement of anti-monopoly and anti-unfair competition laws, standardize government conduct, and break administrative monopolies and local protectionism. We will refine standards for technology, environmental protection, quality, and safety, lower the market entry threshold, and improve the property rights system and the mechanisms for exiting the market. We will foster an institutional environment that facilitates fair competition, advance the development of a sound unified market nationwide, and encourage faster growth among small and medium enterprises. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Our regional policy will focus on speeding up implementation of the coordinated regional development strategy. We will tailor policies to local conditions, provide category-specific guidance, and give play to local comparative strengths. We will encourage the orderly flow of production factors and improve the mechanisms for promoting regional cooperation and integrating markets. We will pick up the pace in developing institutions, mechanisms, and policies for integrated rural and urban development. We will improve the policies on granting permanent urban residency to people from rural areas, and work to ensure basic public services in cities are accessible to rural migrant workers and their families. All these efforts will see that we unlock potential domestic demand in the course of promoting urbanization and urban and rural development.


                                                                                                                                                                            三、2019年国民经济和社会发展计划的主要任务



                                                                                                                                                                            III. Major Tasks for Economic and Social Development in 2019


                                                                                                                                                                            2019年,要以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中全会精神,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,深入落实中央经济工作会议精神和《政府工作报告》部署要求,着力做好八方面工作。



                                                                                                                                                                            In 2019, we will continue following the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and fully apply the guiding principles from the 19th CPC National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee. In line with the decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the principles of the Central Economic Work Conference, and the requirements of the Report on the Work of the Government, we will focus our work on the following eight areas.


                                                                                                                                                                            (一)着力深化供给侧结构性改革。按照“巩固、增强、提升、畅通”八字方针,巩固“三去一降一补”成果,增强微观主体活力,提升产业链水平,畅通国民经济循环,有效缓解企业困难,厚植实体经济发展根基。



                                                                                                                                                                            1. Deepening supply-side structural reform


                                                                                                                                                                            We will follow a policy of consolidating the gains in the five priority tasks, strengthening the dynamism of micro entities, upgrading industrial chains, and ensure unimpeded flows in the economy. On this basis we will work with enterprises to effectively resolve their difficulties and firm up the foundation for developing the real economy.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是推动制造业高质量发展。制定实施大力推动制造业高质量发展的部署方案,培育发展先进制造业集群。继续推进结构性去产能,健全各方面责任共担和损失分担机制,稳步推进企业优胜劣汰,加快处置“僵尸企业”,制定退出实施办法。将降低企业杠杆率与企业兼并重组、产业整合有机结合,稳妥做好去产能职工分流安置工作。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will pursue high-quality development of manufacturing. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will formulate an implementation plan for promoting high-quality development of the manufacturing sector, and foster advanced manufacturing clusters. We will continue cutting overcapacity through structural adjustments and improve the mechanisms for sharing among all involved the responsibilities for making cuts and bearing the resulting losses. We will steadily promote competition so that only the fittest enterprises survive, and move faster to deal with "zombie enterprises." Implementation plans on phasing out overcapacity will be introduced. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will adopt a joined-up approach to lowering enterprise leverage ratios, merging and reorganizing enterprises, and integrating industries. Appropriate measures will be taken to assist workers displaced due to overcapacity cuts. 


                                                                                                                                                                            二是推进先进制造业与现代服务业深度融合。出台实施深化新一代信息技术与制造业融合发展的指导意见,推动工业互联网创新发展与智能制造、电子商务有机结合、互促共进,积极推动传统制造业加速向数字化、网络化、智能化发展,推进制造业物流业融合发展。制定出台服务业高质量发展行动纲要,深入开展服务业综合改革试点。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will promote integration of advanced manufacturing and modern services. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will set out the guidelines to more deeply embed next-generation IT into the manufacturing sector, and work for greater levels of integration and mutual reinforcement between industrial internet innovations and intelligent manufacturing and e-commerce. Traditional industries will be encouraged to make a faster shift to digital, internet-based, and smart-tech models; and integrated development of the manufacturing and logistics sectors will be promoted. We will formulate an action plan for high-quality development of the service sector, and move forward with trials on comprehensive service-sector reforms.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是更大力度降成本。坚持普惠性减税和结构性减税相结合,对小微企业、科技型初创企业实施普惠性税收减免。启动环境保护、节能节水项目和资源综合利用企业所得税优惠目录修订工作。清理规范经营服务性收费。发挥好国家融资担保基金作用,落实好小微企业融资担保降成本奖补机制。推动公共信用信息、金融信用信息共享,创新基于信用的小微企业、“三农”融资模式。大力推广集装化运输,持续推进多式联运示范工程,着力打通公铁水联运衔接的“最后一公里”,切实降低物流成本。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will further cut the costs of enterprises. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will introduce both general-benefit and structural tax cuts, and tax relief will be available for all small and micro businesses and sci-tech startups. We will start revising the catalog of corporate income tax credits for environmental protection, energy and water conservation, and the comprehensive use of resources. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will overhaul and standardize business service fees. We will make good use of the national financing guaranty fund, and make good use of the rewards and subsidies mechanism to reduce small and micro businesses' financing guarantee costs. We will press ahead with sharing public credit and financial credit information, and create credit-based financing models for small and micro businesses and for agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents. 


                                                                                                                                                                            In transportation, we will vigorously develop containerization, continue multimodal transportation demonstration projects, and strive to solve the "last-kilometer" problem in combined highway, railway, and water transportation services. These efforts will deliver substantial cuts in logistics costs.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是加力支持民营企业发展。坚持“两个毫不动摇”,鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济继续发展壮大,大力营造公平竞争的市场环境和法治化制度环境。持续加强产权保护,强化政务诚信建设,开展产权保护领域政务失信专项治理行动,推动各地解决一批企业和群众反映强烈的产权纠纷问题。建立健全企业家参与涉企政策制定机制,着力构建亲清新型政商关系,切实将激发和保护企业家精神各项政策落到实处。出台支持民营企业改革发展的意见。依法保护民营企业权益,有力保护企业家人身安全和财产安全,让民营企业安心放心。深入开展清理拖欠民营企业、中小企业账款专项行动,继续清理规范工程建设领域保证金。发挥各类金融机构优势,完善民营企业信用评级制度,鼓励银行向民营企业发放中长期贷款,推动债券品种创新,扩大优质企业债发行规模,实施好民营企业债券融资支持工具,研究并推动设立民营企业股权融资支持工具,多渠道破解融资难融资贵问题。推进守信激励创新,探索拓展“信易+”服务项目,实现信用惠民便企。对排斥限制民营企业招投标问题开展专项整治。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) We will boost support for private enterprises. 


                                                                                                                                                                            There will be no irresolution about consolidating and developing the public sector and no irresolution about encouraging, supporting, and guiding non-public sector development. The non-public sector will receive all the encouragement, support, and guidance it needs to thrive, and vigorous efforts will be made to create an environment characterized by fair market competition and law-based institutions. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue boosting protection for property rights and strengthen government integrity-building. As part of this, we will take targeted action to address failures to act in good faith on property rights protection in government administration, and local authorities will have assistance in resolving property rights disputes that have elicited a strong reaction from enterprises and the public. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Robust mechanisms will be put in place to include business owners and executives in formulating enterprise-related policies. We will keep working to build a new type of cordial and clean relationship between government and business, and take steps to ensure the full implementation of policies on encouraging and protecting entrepreneurship. We will also issue guidelines on supporting reform and development in private enterprises. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Private enterprises will see their rights and interests being protected in accordance with law, and vigorous steps will be taken to protect the personal safety and property of business owners and executives so they can do business with peace of mind. We will take further action to deal with the problem of defaults on payments to private enterprises and small and medium businesses. We will continue to overhaul and standardize security deposits in the construction industry. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will harness the advantages of all types of financial institutions, improve the credit rating system for private enterprises, and encourage banks to lend to them on medium- and long-term basis. We will develop new types of bonds, allow more competitive enterprises to issue bonds, support private businesses in accessing bond financing, and make explorations on creating tools to support private businesses in obtaining equity financing. Through these multiple channels, we will help solve the problems of private enterprises finding it tough and costly to obtain financing.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will develop new incentives for good-faith actors, explore ways to expand the Good Credit Plus services initiative, and ensure more beneficial and easily accessible services for individuals and enterprises with good credit scores. Targeted measures will be adopted to address the problem of excluding and restricting private enterprises from public bidding. 


                                                                                                                                                                            五是深化农业供给侧结构性改革。毫不放松抓好粮食生产,全面落实粮食安全省长责任制,深入推进优质粮食工程,确保粮食播种面积稳定在16.5亿亩。全面完成粮食生产功能区和重要农产品生产保护区划定,加强农田水利建设,新增高标准农田8000万亩以上。优化品种结构,大力发展紧缺和绿色优质农产品生产,推进农业由增产导向转向提质导向。稳步推进耕地轮作休耕制度试点。实施质量兴农战略规划,建设质量兴农政策、评价、考核和工作体系。持续推进农业绿色发展,推进建设农业绿色发展先行区。加快农业科技改革创新,大力发展现代种业,加强先进适用技术推广,实施地理标志农产品保护工程,推进农业全程机械化。加快构建乡村产业体系,深入推进农村一二三产业融合发展,壮大县域经济。创新发展乡村特色产业和新型服务业,支持特色农产品优势区、现代农业产业园、农业产业强镇建设,大力培育发展农业产业化国家重点龙头企业,积极培育家庭农场、农民合作社等新型农业经营主体,加快培育发展农村新产业新业态。完善稻谷和小麦最低收购价政策,完善玉米和大豆生产者补贴政策,进一步提高大豆补贴标准,多途径扩大大豆种植面积。扩大政策性农业保险改革试点,创新和加强农村金融服务。毫不松懈做好非洲猪瘟防控工作,稳定畜禽产品生产供应。健全化肥、农药等重要农资储备制度。加快建立符合国际规则的新型农业支持保护政策体系。



                                                                                                                                                                            5) We will deepen supply-side structural reform in agriculture. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will keep a firm focus on grain production. We will ensure full implementation of the food security responsibility system for provincial governors, push forward quality grain programs, and ensure total grain acreage remains steady at 110 million hectares.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will complete the work of delimiting grain-producing functional zones and protected production areas for major agricultural products, and improve farmland irrigation and water conservancy; and the area of high-quality cropland will be increased by at least 5.33 million hectares. We will improve the crop mix, encouraging farmers to grow crops that are in short supply, are environmentally friendly, and are of high-quality, and promoting a shift in the focus of agriculture from increasing output to raising quality. Trials of crop rotation and fallow land will be carried out steadily. We will implement a strategic plan for quality-driven reinvigoration of agriculture, and put in place supplementary policies and assessment, review, and work systems. Continuing the push toward the green development of agriculture, we will support the building of pilot zones for this express purpose. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will step up reform and innovation in agricultural science and technology, make a big push to develop the modern seed industry, promote the application of advanced, practical technologies, launch programs to protect agricultural products using geographical indications, and push ahead with complete agricultural mechanization.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will move faster to build a rural industrial system, further promote the integrated development of rural primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, and strengthen county economies. This will see rural areas being encouraged to take new approaches in developing their distinctive local industries and new types of services. We will support the development of areas growing quality, distinctive local agricultural products, modern agriculture industrial parks, and towns with agricultural strengths. We will cultivate and support national leading enterprises in agricultural industrialization, foster new agribusiness models such as family farms and farmer cooperatives, and accelerate the development of new industries and new forms of business in rural areas. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will refine policies on minimum purchase prices for rice and wheat and on corn and soybean production subsides, further increase the subsidies for soybeans, and employ a variety of ways to expand the area of land under soybean cultivation. We will expand trial reforms of policy-backed agricultural insurance, and develop new and better rural financial services. 


                                                                                                                                                                            There will be no let-up in our efforts to successfully prevent and control African swine fever and ensure production and supply of livestock and poultry products. The reserve system for important agricultural supplies such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides will be improved. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will move faster to establish a new type of support and protection policy framework for agriculture in line with international rules.


                                                                                                                                                                            (二)促进形成强大国内市场。坚持办好自己的事,着眼更好满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要,大力培育发展国内市场,实现经济良性循环和供需动态平衡。



                                                                                                                                                                            2. Developing a strong domestic market


                                                                                                                                                                            To fulfill the requirement of managing our own affairs well and the task of meeting the people's ever-growing needs for a better life, we will work to vigorously develop the domestic market, promote beneficial circulation in the economy, and ensure a dynamic equilibrium of supply and demand.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是加快传统产业改造提升。制定加快传统产业改造提升促进形成强大国内市场的实施意见,修订产业结构调整指导目录。强化创新、土地、人才等要素保障,为制造业企业技术改造和转型升级提供中长期资金供给。加强重大技术装备补短板,推动首台(套)装备示范应用。加强质量和品牌建设,强化标准引领,着力提升产品品质。改造提升重大产业基地,培育发展现代产业集群。组织实施新一轮技术改造升级工程,运用互联网、大数据、人工智能等新技术和先进适用绿色工艺、技术、装备改造传统产业,促进传统产业安全、绿色、集聚、高效发展。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will accelerate transformation and upgrading of traditional industries.


                                                                                                                                                                            Guidelines on accelerating transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and developing a dynamic domestic market will be formulated, and the catalog of industrial structural adjustments will be revised. Efforts will be made to increase the support of innovation, land, human resources, and other factors of production and to ensure the medium- and long-term funding needed for manufacturing enterprises to upgrade their technologies and transform their business models. We will strongly support the development of major technological equipment to shore up areas of weakness, and promote the demonstration and application of newly-developed equipment. We will support the efforts to improve quality and build brands, attach greater importance to standards, and strive to bolster product quality. We will upgrade major industrial bases, and cultivate modern industrial clusters. We will organize a new round of technology transformation and upgrading projects, and harness new technologies like the internet, big data, and AI and advanced, applicable green methods, technologies, and equipment to transform traditional industries and promote their safe, green, intensive, and efficient development.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是大力培育新兴产业。优化新业态新模式的监管体制,深化新兴产业政银企合作,在新一代信息技术、高端装备、生物技术、新材料等重点领域,优先培育和大力发展一批战略性新兴产业集群。加快建立数字经济政策体系,制定实施新时期“互联网+”行动,实施数字经济、“互联网+”重大工程,建设人工智能创新应用先导区,持续推进大数据综合试验区建设。加快5G商用步伐和IPv6规模部署,加强人工智能、工业互联网、物联网等新型基础设施建设和融合应用。研究制定新时期“宽带中国”战略,加强新一代信息基础设施建设。研究制定生物经济发展战略纲要和促进生物产业发展的若干政策,深入实施生物产业倍增工程,促进生物技术和信息技术融合发展。加大通用航空产业发展步伐。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will foster emerging industries. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will optimize the oversight mechanism for new forms and new models of business and promote deeper cooperation between government, banks, and enterprises in developing emerging industries. We will prioritize and strongly develop a number of clusters of strategic emerging industries in key fields such as next-generation IT, high-end equipment, biotechnology, and new materials. We will move faster to set up a policy framework for the digital economy, formulate an Internet Plus action plan for the new era, and carry out major digital economy and Internet Plus projects. We will set up leading zones for new AI applications and continue developing integrated experimental zones for big data. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will move quickly to launch commercial 5G operations and expand deployment of Internet Protocol version six (IPv6), and strengthen the development and integrated application of new types of infrastructure in AI, the industrial internet, and the Internet of Things. We will commence research and planning on a National Broadband Internet Agenda for the new era and step up construction of next-generation information infrastructure. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Research will be conducted on formulating a bio-economy development strategy and a package of policies for developing the biotech industry. We will take further action to boost growth of the biotech industry and to promote integrated development of biotechnology and information technology. Further steps will be taken to develop the general aviation industry.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是聚焦关键领域促进有效投资。制定基础设施高质量发展实施方案,推进落实保持基础设施领域补短板力度有关举措。安排中央预算内投资5776亿元,比上年增加400亿元。调整优化中央预算内投资结构,重点用于“三农”建设、重大基础设施建设、创新驱动和结构调整、保障性安居工程、社会事业和社会治理、节能环保与生态建设等方面。加大对在建项目的资金保障,鼓励地方政府盘活存量财政资金,重点用于在建基础设施项目,防止出现“半拉子”工程。建立健全吸引民间资本投资重点领域长效机制,引导民营企业参与国家重大战略和补短板项目建设。鼓励民间资本采取混合所有制、投标联合体等多种方式参与PPP项目。加快推动川藏铁路、沿江高铁、北煤南运通道体系、跨区输电通道、西南水电等重大项目的规划建设,支持京津冀、长江三角洲、粤港澳大湾区、山东半岛、北部湾等重点城市群加快推进城际铁路、市域(郊)铁路规划建设,抓好三峡库区后续工程建设,抓紧推进三峡枢纽水运新通道和葛洲坝航运扩能工程等重大项目前期工作,规划建设西部陆海新通道,加快建设天然气管网设施互联互通“全国一张网”。推进枢纽机场新建、迁建和改扩建工程,有序建设支线机场和通用机场,加快推进北京大兴国际机场建设和运营筹备工作,确保9月底前建成投运。大力推进综合客运枢纽、物流枢纽建设,制定国家物流枢纽网络建设实施方案,支持集疏港铁路等建设,打通运输“最后一公里”。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will focus on key areas and promote effective investment. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will draw up an implementation plan for high-quality infrastructure development, and promote the implementation of measures on sustaining efforts to strengthen areas of weakness in infrastructure. A total of 577.6 billion yuan from the central government budget will be allocated for investment this year, 40 billion more than last year. Adjustments will be made to optimize the composition of investments from the central government budget. The bulk of investments will go to support agriculture, rural areas, and rural residents; major infrastructure, innovation-driven development, and structural adjustments; government-subsidized housing, social programs, and social governance; and energy saving, environmental protection, and ecological conservation. We will work harder to ensure funding for ongoing projects; and to avoid projects being only half-finished, local governments will be encouraged to make good use of available fiscal funds, which should be used primarily for infrastructure projects already under way. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will ensure stronger long-term mechanisms for attracting private investment into key areas, with greater encouragement for private enterprises to get involved in major national strategies and state projects to strengthen areas of weakness. We will encourage the participation of private capital through PPP projects in various forms such as mixed ownership and joint bidding consortiums. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will press ahead with the planning and development of major projects such as the Chengdu-Lhasa railway, high-speed railway along the Yangtze River, a north-to-south coal line, trans-regional power transmission routes, and hydropower projects in southwest China. We will support major city clusters in moving faster to plan and build intercity, municipal, and suburban rail services—included in this are the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the Shandong Peninsula, and the Beibu Bay area. Follow-up projects for the Three Gorges Reservoir area will be advanced. We will speed up preliminary work for major projects such as a new channel for the Three Georges water transportation hub and the project to expand the navigational capacity of the Gezhouba Dam. Plans will be made to build new land-sea transit routes for the western region, and faster progress will be achieved in building a national network of natural gas pipelines. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue projects to build, relocate, rebuild, and expand hub airports, and construct regional airports and general-purpose airports in a well-planned way. We will speed up construction of Beijing Daxing International Airport and operational preparations to ensure its opening at the end of this September. We will advance the construction of comprehensive passenger transportation hubs and logistics hubs, draw up an implementation plan for developing a national network of logistics hubs, support the building of port logistics railways, and solve the "last-kilometer" problem in transportation connectivity.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是积极培育消费惠民新增长点。研究制定居民增收三年行动方案。落实好个人所得税基本减除费用标准和6个专项附加扣除政策,深入推进城乡居民增收试点工作,推动实施技能人才、新型职业农民、科研人员等重点群体增收激励计划,完善事业单位岗位绩效工资制度,进一步增强居民消费能力。制定出台促进汽车、家电等热点产品消费的措施,畅通城乡双向联动销售渠道,开展品牌消费、品质消费“双品网购节”系列活动,挖掘农村网购和乡村旅游消费潜力。实施质量强国战略,推动产品和服务质量提升。开展打击假冒伪劣三年行动,净化市场消费环境。深入实施“同线同标同质”工程,加强重要商品质量追溯体系建设,改造提升重点城市步行街,吸引高端商品和服务等境外消费回流。推动各类应用电子产品智能化升级,进一步扩大和升级信息消费。创新激励政策,强化市场监管,扩大绿色消费。加快教育、育幼、养老、家政、医疗、文化、旅游等服务业发展。丰富文化和旅游产品及服务供给,创新业态和消费模式。研究制定健康产业发展行动纲要,加大体育消费设施建设力度。落实带薪年休假制度。出台实施大力发展老年人照护服务的政策措施,开展家政服务标准化试点示范建设,加大家政人员培训力度。推进海南国际旅游消费中心、平潭国际旅游岛和横琴国际休闲旅游岛建设,组织实施“三区三州”等深度贫困地区旅游基础设施改造升级行动计划(2018-2020年)。加强重点旅游景区快速交通、步行道、停车场等基础设施和公共服务设施建设,规范主题公园健康发展,支持邮轮、旅居车等消费发展。研究制定促进东北地区寒地冰雪经济发展的指导意见。实施社会办医疗机构跨部门联合审批。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) We will foster new growth areas in consumption for the benefit of the people. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will work on drawing up a three-year action plan for increasing personal income. We will ensure implementation of the policy on raising the personal income tax threshold and introducing six special deductible items, and carry out trials on increasing the incomes of urban and rural residents. We will move forward with plans on providing incentives to increase incomes for key groups such as skilled personnel, new-type professional farmers, and R&D personnel, and improve the performance-based salary system for public institution employees. These actions will help further improve people's ability to consume.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will formulate measures for boosting spending on automobiles, home appliances, and other popular products, and keep channels between urban and rural markets free-flowing. We will launch a series of online shopping promotions to boost brand and quality consumption, and unlock the consumption potential of online shopping and tourism in rural areas. To promote improvements in the quality of our products and services, we will implement a strategy to make China strong on quality. We will launch a three-year campaign against counterfeit and substandard goods to ensure a clean market environment for consumers. We will intensify efforts to ensure that products sold domestically are produced on the same production lines, meet the same standards, and are of the same quality as exported ones, and improve the system for quality traceability of important goods. We will upgrade pedestrian malls in major cities, and encourage consumers to purchase high-end goods and services at home instead of overseas. We will support efforts to make applied electronic products smarter, and work on further expanding and upgrading consumption of information goods and services. To encourage green consumption, we will introduce new incentive policies and tighten market oversight. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will speed up development of specific service sectors, including education, childcare, elderly care, housekeeping, healthcare, culture, and tourism. We will expand the diversity of products and services in culture and tourism, and promote the development of new forms of business and models of consumption. We will formulate an action plan to develop the health industry, and build more facilities to encourage sports-related spending. We will ensure implementation of the paid vacation system. Policies and measures will be introduced to improve care services for the elderly. Pilot and demonstration projects will be carried out to set standards for domestic services, and training will be boosted for domestic-service personnel. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue working to make Hainan an international hotspot for tourism and shopping, to grow Pingtan as an international tourism island, and to develop Hengqin as an international leisure and tourism resort. We will organize the implementation of the Action Plan (2018-2020) for Redeveloping and Upgrading Tourism Infrastructure in the Three Regions and Three Prefectures and Other Areas Affected by Extreme Poverty. We will improve the infrastructure and public service facilities at major tourist attractions, installing rapid transit services, walkways, and parking lots. We will set standards for the sound development of theme parks, and support cruiser liner and recreational vehicle-based spending. Research will be conducted to formulate guidelines on developing the winter economy in northeast China. Joint review and approval of privately-run hospitals will be carried out by related government departments.


                                                                                                                                                                            五是切实稳定市场预期。积极主动加强重大政策解读,创新宣传手段,及时向各类市场主体精准解读政策精神。及时妥善化解可能影响预期的重大风险隐患,密切关注舆情走势,及时回应社会关切,强化重特大突发事件应急处置。做好第四次全国经济普查数据采集、发布和解读工作。密切跟踪分析重要商品市场供需和价格变化,做好市场保供和物价稳定工作,加强产供储销运调节,严厉打击囤积居奇、哄抬物价等不法行为。



                                                                                                                                                                            5) We will keep market expectations stable. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will actively work to enhance explanations of major policies, adopt new approaches in policy communication, and ensure all types of market entities have a correct understanding of our policies. We will take timely and appropriate measures to defuse major risks and potential dangers that may affect market expectations, pay close attention to trends in society, respond to people's concerns promptly, and take stronger measures to deal with major and serious emergencies. We will gather, publish, and analyze data for China's fourth economic census. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will closely monitor and analyze changes in supply and demand and the prices of major commodities, ensure market supply and price stability, strengthen regulation of the production, supply, storage, marketing, and transportation of goods, and crack down on speculative hoarding, price gouging, and other illegal activities.


                                                                                                                                                                            (三)坚决打好三大攻坚战。针对突出问题,集中力量、分类推进、精准施策,打好重点战役,全力攻坚、务求实效。



                                                                                                                                                                            3. Securing progress in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution 


                                                                                                                                                                            Aiming at the most pronounced problems, we will rely on collective efforts, category-based approaches, and targeted policies to accomplish key tasks, tackle tough challenges, and achieve solid results.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是打好防范化解重大风险攻坚战。坚决贯彻总体国家安全观,健全维护国家经济安全的体制机制,强化重大风险监测研判预警,守住不发生系统性风险的底线。坚持结构性去杠杆基本思路,把握好节奏和力度,推动市场化债转股签约项目尽快落地,加强国有企业资产负债约束,建立企业债务风险监测、预警体系。加强对股市、债市、汇市资金流动和风险的监管与处置,防范金融市场异常波动和共振。完善资本市场基本制度,加强互联网金融等领域监管,有序化解影子银行风险。弥补监管制度短板,尽快出台金融控股公司监管办法。稳妥处理地方政府债务风险,坚决遏制地方政府隐性债务增量、有序推进存量化解,支持融资平台公司市场化转型。坚持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的定位,稳妥实施房地产市场平稳健康发展长效机制方案,落实城市主体责任制,稳地价、稳房价、稳预期,坚决防范化解房地产市场风险。坚持租购并举,完善住房市场体系和住房保障体系,努力解决城镇中低收入居民和新市民住房问题。改革住房公积金制度。在人口净流入的大中城市加快发展住房租赁市场特别是长期租赁市场。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will further advance the battle against major risks.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will firmly apply a holistic approach to national security. We will improve the systems and mechanisms for safeguarding national economic security, strengthen the monitoring, assessment, and early warning of major risks, and make sure no systemic risks arise. Sticking with the basic approach of structural deleveraging, and setting a proper pace and intensity, we will work for the early implementation of contracted projects for market-based debt-to-equity swaps, impose stronger constraints on the debt-to-asset ratios of SOEs, and establish systems for monitoring and sending early warnings on enterprise debt risks. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Oversight over capital flow in the stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets and the handling of related risks will be strengthened to prevent abnormal fluctuations and resonance in the financial market. Basic capital market systems will be improved, oversight over internet finance will be strengthened, and orderly steps will be taken to defuse shadow banking risks. Working to remedy the weak points in the regulation system, we will unveil, at the earliest possible date, measures for regulating financial holding companies. We will see that local government debt risks are handled properly. We will firmly check increases in hidden local government debt, take orderly steps to deal with existing debt, and support the market-oriented transformation of financing platform companies.


                                                                                                                                                                            In line with the principle that houses are for living in, not for speculation, we will take prudent steps to establish a long-term mechanism to facilitate the stable and healthy development of the real estate market, and take measures to see that municipal governments fulfill their primary responsibility in this respect. We will keep land prices, housing prices, and expectations stable, and resolutely prevent and defuse risks in the housing market. We will encourage both the rental and purchase of housing, improve the housing market and housing support systems, and work hard to help medium- and low-income urban residents and new urban residents solve their housing problems. We will reform the housing provident fund system, and work faster to develop the housing rental market, particularly the long-term rental market, in large and medium-sized cities that have net population inflows.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是打好精准脱贫攻坚战。扎实推进打赢脱贫攻坚战三年行动,集中力量支持“三区三州”等深度贫困地区和特殊贫困群体脱贫攻坚,重点解决好实现“两不愁三保障”面临的突出问题。深入实施产业、就业、生态、教育、健康、社会保障等扶贫,实施残疾人脱贫行动。进一步落实脱贫攻坚责任制,完善脱贫攻坚考核监督评估机制。研究建立促进困难群众稳定脱贫和防范返贫的长效机制,减少和防止贫困人口返贫。对摘帽后的贫困县通过实施乡村振兴战略,巩固脱贫成果、提升发展水平。研究解决收入水平略高于建档立卡贫困户的群体缺乏政策支持等新问题。全年再减少农村贫困人口1000万人以上,基本完成“十三五”易地扶贫搬迁规划建设任务。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will make good strides in the battle against poverty. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will firmly move forward with the three-year initiative for winning the battle against poverty, with a focus on supporting particular groups affected by poverty and areas classified as extremely poor, such as the aforementioned three regions and three prefectures. Priority will be given to resolving the key problems in our efforts to ensure adequate food and clothing and access to education, basic medical services, and housing for the rural poor population. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will step up efforts to reduce poverty by developing local industries, boosting employment, education, healthcare, and social security, and providing ecological-conservation subsidies, and take action to tackle poverty resulting from disability. The responsibility system for poverty elimination will be effectively enforced, and evaluation, oversight, and assessment mechanisms will be improved. We will make explorations on establishing long-term mechanisms for people to steadily make their way out and stay out of poverty, thereby reducing and preventing cases of people slipping back into impoverishment. Counties that have eliminated poverty will be encouraged to consolidate their progress and promote local development through the rural revitalization strategy. We will explore solutions for new issues such as the lack of support polices for those with incomes slightly above the poverty line. This year, the rural poor population is targeted to fall by at least ten million, and work on projects to relocate poor populations from inhospitable areas during the 13th Five-Year Plan period will be basically completed.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是打好污染防治攻坚战。坚守阵地、巩固成果,不放宽放松,更不走回头路,协同推进经济高质量发展和生态环境高水平保护。聚焦打赢蓝天保卫战、柴油货车污染治理、城市黑臭水体治理、长江保护修复、渤海综合治理、农业农村污染治理、水源地保护等七大战役,加大工作和投入力度。加强污染防治重大科技攻关。改革创新环境治理方式,制定构建政府为主导、企业为主体、社会组织和公众共同参与的环境治理体系的意见,落实企业污染防治主体责任和环保责任。深入推进生态环境保护督察,帮助企业制定环境治理解决方案。推进钢铁行业超低排放改造,持续稳步推进煤电超低排放和节能改造,促进煤电高效、清洁、高质量发展。优化调整货物运输结构,提升煤炭、矿石、焦炭等大宗货物铁路、水路运输比例。实施城市污水处理提质增效三年行动,全面推进城市生活垃圾分类工作,研究制定进一步加强塑料污染防治的意见。组织实施“无废城市”建设试点和废铅蓄电池污染防治行动。大力推进能源节约和高效利用,促进重点地区煤炭消费减量替代和清洁高效利用。有效推进北方地区冬季清洁取暖,集中资源推进京津冀及周边地区、汾渭平原散煤治理。加强天然气产供储销体系建设,按照“以气定改”原则有序实施煤改气等措施。支持清洁能源多元化应用,提高可再生能源占能源消费比重,建立可再生能源电力消纳利用长效机制。加强生态系统保护和修复,加强荒漠化、石漠化等治理。加大生物多样性保护力度。继续开展退耕还林还草还湿。全面开展生态保护红线勘界定标,建设生态保护红线监管平台。完善多元化的横向生态补偿机制。推进大规模国土绿化,提升森林、草原、湿地等生态系统质量,深化国家公园体制改革。深入实施河长制湖长制,持续推进重点流域综合治理。严格管控围填海。建立健全绿色生产、消费的法律制度和政策体系,研究制定建立健全绿色低碳循环发展经济体系的指导意见,推进资源循环利用基地建设。实施国家节水行动,提高水资源管理水平和利用效率。推广绿色建筑、绿色快递包装。加快构建市场导向的绿色技术创新体系,发布绿色产业指导目录(2019年版),推动绿色高效制冷。改革完善环境经济政策,健全排污权交易制度,大力发展绿色金融。积极推广合同能源管理、合同节水管理、环境污染第三方治理模式,加快实施绿色制造工程,促进节能环保等绿色产业发展。开展绿色生活创建行动。实施应对气候变化国家战略,加快完善全国碳市场制度体系,积极参与全球气候治理。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will make solid progress in the battle against pollution.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will hold our ground and consolidate the progress made in coordinating high-quality economic growth and high-standard ecological and environmental protection. We will not relax restrictions or slacken efforts, much less allow a return to the ways of the past. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will put greater energy and investment into the seven campaigns to keep our skies blue, control pollution caused by diesel trucks, improve black, malodorous water bodies in cities, carry out protection and restoration in the Yangtze River basin, improve the water environment of the Bohai Sea region, control pollution in agriculture and rural areas, and protect water sources. We will work to achieve major scientific and technological breakthroughs in pollution prevention and control. We will reform and innovate environmental governance methods, draw up guidelines on establishing an environmental governance system in which government leads, enterprises are the main actors, and social organizations and the public participate, and ensure that enterprises shoulder the primary responsibility for pollution prevention and control and the responsibility for environmental protection. We will strengthen inspections on ecological and environmental protection, and help enterprises develop their own environmental improvement solutions.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will encourage upgrading in the steel industry to achieve ultra-low emissions, steadily advance efforts to upgrade coal-burning power plants to achieve ultra-low emissions and energy conservation, and promote efficient, clean, and high-quality development of coal-fired power plants. We will adjust and optimize the mix of freight transportation modes, increasing the proportion of rail and water transportation for coal, ore, coke, and other bulk goods.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue the three-year initiative to treat urban sewage more effectively and efficiently, advance the sorting of urban household waste across the country, and draw up guidelines on taking stronger steps to prevent and control plastic pollution. We will run trials on a "no waste cities" initiative, and take action to prevent and address pollution caused by used lead storage batteries. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will make a major push to promote conservation and efficient use of energy, and urge key localities to cut coal consumption by replacing it with alternative energy and by using coal in a cleaner and more efficient way. We will effectively promote clean energy sources for winter heating across northern China, and concentrate resources to ensure cleaner use of coal in non-industrial sectors in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas and the Fenwei Plain region.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will improve natural gas production, supply, reserve, and sale systems, and take orderly steps to replace coal with gas in areas where gas supply is sufficient for such replacement. We will support the use of clean energy in multiple ways, raise the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption, and establish a long-term mechanism to absorb electricity generated from renewable energy sources into power grids. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will redouble our efforts to protect and restore ecosystems. We will address the spread of desertification and stony deserts, work harder to protect biodiversity, and continue efforts to return marginal farmland to forests, grasslands, and wetlands. We will conduct extensive surveys and set standards for ecological red lines, and build an oversight and management platform for these lines. Diversified trans-regional ecological compensation mechanisms will be improved. We will make progress in large-scale afforestation, improve the quality of ecosystems in forests, grasslands, and wetlands, and deepen reform on the national parks system. We will achieve extensive roll-out of the river chief and lake chief systems, and continue to advance the comprehensive governance of the water environment in key river basins. Control and oversight will be tightened over coastal reclamation activities.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will further develop and refine our legal and policy systems to promote green production and consumption, and put forward guidelines on building a sound economic structure that facilitates green, low-carbon, and circular development. We will promote the construction of resource recycling centers. We will carry out the national water conservation campaign and ensure water resources are better managed and more efficiently utilized. We will encourage the construction of eco-friendly buildings and the use of eco-friendly express delivery packaging. We will move faster to set up a system for market-oriented green technology innovation and release the Catalog of Green Industries (2019). We will promote green and efficient refrigeration, reform and improve economic policies concerning environmental protections, refine the cap-and-trade system for emissions, and develop green finance. We will promote contracted energy and water-conservation management models and third-party treatment of environmental pollution, make rapid advances in green manufacturing, and boost the growth of green industries in relation to energy conservation and environmental protection. Initiatives will be carried out to promote eco-friendly lifestyles.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will execute the national strategy for responding to climate change, move faster to improve national carbon market institutions, and actively participate in global climate governance.


                                                                                                                                                                            (四)加快建设创新型国家。落实创新驱动发展战略,提高大众创业、万众创新水平,促进军民协同创新,全面提升创新能力和效率。



                                                                                                                                                                            4. Moving faster to build China into a country of innovators 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will implement the innovation-driven development strategy, take the business startups and innovation initiative to the next level, and promote military-civilian collaboration in innovation, to comprehensively raise our innovation capacity and efficiency.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是加强国家创新体系建设。研究谋划新一轮全面创新改革试验。持续推进科技体制改革,抓好赋予科研机构和人员更大自主权有关政策的贯彻落实。改革科技创新成果的科学、技术、经济等价值评价制度,推动科研成果加快转化。建立健全以创新、质量、贡献为导向的科技人才评价激励体系。编制新一轮国家中长期科技发展规划。加大对基础研究的稳定持续投入。加快实施国家科技重大专项和科技创新2030—重大项目。构建开放、协同、高效的共性技术研发平台,加快健全需求为导向、企业为主体的产学研一体化创新机制。大力支持民营企业开展原始创新,支持龙头企业包括民营高技术企业牵头重大科技项目,强化企业、科研院所和高校的创新资源整合共享。加强工业强基工程协同攻关,推进产业链上下游一条龙示范应用。抓紧布局国家实验室,重组国家重点实验室体系。完善重大科技项目组织管理。加强国家产业创新中心建设,支持新一批国家自主创新示范区建设,在关键领域新布局建设若干国家制造业创新中心。加快建立京津冀协同创新共同体,支持北京、上海科技创新中心建设,支持北京怀柔、上海张江、安徽合肥3个综合性国家科学中心建设,以科技创新支撑长江经济带发展、长江三角洲区域一体化发展战略,研究和大力支持建设粤港澳大湾区国际科技创新中心并布局建设综合性国家科学中心。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will improve national innovation systems. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Research and planning will be carried out for a new round of pilot reforms on comprehensive innovation. We will keep advancing reform of the science and technology management system, with particular emphasis on implementing policies on granting greater autonomy to research institutes and researchers. To see scientific advances being applied more quickly, we will pursue reform of the systems for assessing the scientific, technological, and economic value of science and technology innovations. We will establish a robust science and technology personnel evaluation and incentive system based on innovation, quality, and contribution. We will draw up plans on a new round of national scientific and technological development over the medium and long term. Investment in basic research will maintain steady growth, and efforts will be accelerated to implement major national science and technology programs and major projects for the Sci-Tech Innovation 2030 Agenda.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will work to establish open, coordinated, and efficient platforms for research on generic technologies, and move faster to improve collaborative innovation mechanisms for bringing together enterprises, academia, and research institutes, which are demand-oriented and give enterprises the leading role. Private enterprises will receive strong support in pursuing original innovation. There will be support for leading enterprises, including private high-tech enterprises, to initiate major technology projects, and efforts will be made to achieve better integration and sharing of innovation resources among companies, research institutes, and universities. We will step up cooperation to see technological breakthroughs in projects designed to strengthen China's industrial foundation, and promote demonstrations for technology applications throughout the industrial chain.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will move swiftly to carry out overall planning for the development of national laboratories, and reorganize the system of national key laboratories. Major science and technology projects will be better organized and managed. We will step up the development of national industrial innovation centers, support the building of a new group of national demonstration zones for independent innovation, and make plans for building several national manufacturing innovation centers in key sectors. We will speed up the development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as a collaborative innovation community, support Beijing and Shanghai in developing into science and technology innovation centers, and support the construction of comprehensive national science centers in Huairou in Beijing, Zhangjiang in Shanghai, and Hefei in Anhui. We will see that scientific and technological innovation underpins the strategies on the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt and regional integration in the Yangtze River Delta. We will conduct research on and provide strong support to the initiative to develop the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into an international science and technology innovation center, and make plans for building a national comprehensive science center in the area.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是持续推进创新创业高质量发展。加快落实“双创”升级版重点任务。进一步优化创新创业环境,推动落实各项创业扶持政策,健全公共服务体系,积极发展创业孵化基地等各类载体,打造展示交流和资源共享平台。全面加强知识产权保护,建立覆盖知识产权交易、评估等方面的服务体系,健全知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度。进一步完善支持创业投资发展的相关政策,鼓励发行双创专项金融债券、双创孵化专项债券等。推动国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金高效运营,构建新兴领域创业投资联盟。办好2019年全国“双创”活动周。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will promote high-quality innovation and business startups. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will work quickly to implement major projects under the upgraded edition of the business startups and innovation initiative. To further improve the environment for making innovations and starting businesses, we will ensure the implementation of all policies on supporting business startups, refine our public service systems, develop all types of supportive platforms like business incubation centers, and also build platforms for exhibitions, exchanges, and resource sharing. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will take comprehensive measures to strengthen IPR protection, establish service systems covering intellectual property trade and assessment, and improve the punitive damages system for IPR infringements. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will further enhance policies to support venture capital, and encourage the issuance of special bonds by financial institutions for funding innovation and business startups and special bonds for funding innovation and business incubation. We will promote the efficient operation of the National Venture Capital Guide Fund for Emerging Industries, and build venture capital alliances for emerging industries. We will ensure this year's National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Week is a success.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是扎实推进军民融合深度发展。深入推进军民融合重大示范项目和军民融合创新示范区建设,推动军民融合产业发展,充分发挥军民融合对培育壮大经济发展新动能的重要支撑作用。采取强有力的措施深入开展经济建设项目贯彻国防要求试点,实现共建共享共用。健全军民融合体制机制,破除“民参军”壁垒,加大“军转民”力度。健全军地两用人才培养机制,畅通军地人才双向流动渠道。深入推进国防军工生产能力建设,进一步优化国民经济动员布局。推动军民融合综合性立法。持续深化军工企业混合所有制改革试点。强化军民科技成果双向转化应用。融合拓展国家军民融合公共服务平台功能。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will make steady progress in deepening military-civilian integration. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will push ahead with major MCI demonstration projects and the construction of MCI innovation demonstration zones. We will promote military-civilian integration in industries to give full play to its important role in cultivating strong drivers of economic growth. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will take strong, wide-ranging measures in undertaking trials to enforce national defense requirements for economic projects, with a view to achieving shared benefits and applications through joint efforts of both sectors. MCI systems and mechanisms will be improved, so that barriers blocking civilian participation in military programs are eliminated, and more military technologies are put to civilian uses. We will improve mechanisms for training personnel competent for both military and civilian jobs and ensure channels are open for personnel movement between military and civilian sectors. We will continue to support the enhancement of production capacity in the defense industry, and improve plans for national economic mobilization. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Steps will be taken to promote comprehensive legislation on military-civilian integration. Pilot reforms on mixed ownership in military industry enterprises will be deepened. We will support commercialization and application of military technological advances in the civilian sector, and vice versa. We will integrate and expand the functions of the national MCI public service platform. 


                                                                                                                                                                            (五)持续深化重点领域改革。全面贯彻落实习近平总书记在庆祝改革开放40周年大会上的重要讲话精神,持续强化改革牵引作用,以增强微观主体活力为重点,推动经济体制改革走深走实。



                                                                                                                                                                            5. Consistently deepening reform in key areas


                                                                                                                                                                            Fully implementing the guiding principles of General Secretary Xi Jinping's speech at the meeting marking the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up, we will continue to bolster the leading role of reform, and carry out deeper and more concrete economic structural reform with a focus on energizing micro entities.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是深化“放管服”改革。加快完善中国营商环境评价体系,健全评价分析系统,在直辖市、计划单列市、部分省会城市和地级市开展营商环境试评价,推动全国范围营商环境实现较大幅度改善,降低制度性交易成本。持续推动市场准入负面清单制度全面实施,建立健全清单动态调整机制,不断完善清单信息公开机制,推动“非禁即入”普遍落实。再推动取消一批行政许可等事项,加快清理各类变相审批和许可,压减规范行政处罚事项,大幅压缩工程建设项目审批时间,压缩开办企业、注册商标、登记财产、获得电力、跨境贸易等事项的办理环节、时限和成本,进一步清理规范各类行政审批中介服务事项,全面推开行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩改革,打造法治化、国际化、便利化的营商环境。深化商事制度改革,积极推进“证照分离”改革全覆盖,深入推行企业注销便利化改革,继续压缩专利审查和商标注册时间。加快健全以“双随机、一公开”为基本手段、以重点监管为补充、以信用监管为基础的新型监管机制,在市场监管领域推进跨部门“双随机、一公开”监管,加强反垄断和反不正当竞争执法。大力推动“互联网+政务服务”,加快“数字政府”建设,抓紧建成全国一体化在线政务服务平台,加快实现一网通办、异地可办。出台国家政务信息系统管理办法,建立完善国家政务信息系统清单管理机制。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will deepen reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services. 


                                                                                                                                                                            To bring about a marked improvement in the national business environment, we will act quickly to enhance China's business environment assessment system, refine assessment and analysis systems, and begin pilot business environment assessments in municipalities directly under the central government, cities specifically designated in the state plan, some provincial capitals, and some prefecture-level cities. This will also help reduce government-imposed transaction costs.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue promoting full implementation of the market access negative list system. We will establish a dynamic mechanism for adjusting the list, make further improvements to the system for publishing list-related information, and make sure all sectors not restricted by the list are accessible. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will once again abolish a slew of administrative approval items, promptly overhaul all stealth approval and permit procedures, and reduce and standardize administrative penalty items. We will further cut the time it takes to approve a construction project, and cut the steps, the time, and the costs involved in starting businesses, registering trademarks and property, getting electricity, and trading across borders. We will further overhaul and standardize all types of intermediary services needed for obtaining government approval, and move forward across the board with untying industry associations and chambers of commerce from the government. All these efforts will help create an enabling environment for businesses that is consistent with the rule of law and international practices.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will deepen institutional reforms in the business sector, implement the reform to separate out the business license from certificates required for starting a business across the country, advance the reforms on making it easier to cancel market entities, and scale back the time required for patent review and trademark registration.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will move faster to improve the new-type oversight mechanism, which is centered on oversight of credibility, supplemented by oversight of major areas, and based on the model using randomly selected inspectors to inspect randomly selected entities and requiring the prompt release of results. In terms of market regulation, we will promote the adoption of the above-mentioned model across departments, and step up law enforcement to combat monopolistic pricing and unfair competition. A big push will be made to continue rolling out the Internet Plus Government Services model, and quickly build a digital government. We will move quickly to set up a national unified online government service platform to see that all government services are accessible online and trans-regionally. Management provisions for government information systems will be unveiled, and a robust list-based management mechanism for government information systems will be established.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是推进国资国企改革。扎实推进国企改革“1+N”政策文件落实落地和各项改革试点经验成果的推广应用,出台改革国有资本授权经营体制方案,深化综合性改革,建立职业经理人等制度,培育世界一流企业。推进重要领域混合所有制改革,完善员工持股等配套政策,加快推进一般竞争性领域国有企业混合所有制改革,积极推动民营企业参与国有企业改革。坚持做强做优做大国有资本,推动国有经济战略性重组和布局优化,加快实现从管企业向管资本转变,改组成立一批国有资本投资公司,组建一批国有资本运营公司,推动国有资本投资、运营公司试点取得更大成效。研究扩大国有资本经营预算实施范围,提高国有资本经营预算调入一般公共预算的比例。继续分批推动划转部分国有资本充实社保基金。深入推进国有企业工资决定机制改革。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will promote state capital and SOE reforms. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will steadily implement the guidelines and supplementary documents on deepening reform of SOEs and promote extensive application of successful outcomes from pilot reforms. We will draw up plans on reforming the system for authorized operations of state capital, deepen comprehensive reform, establish a system of professional managers, and strive to foster world-class enterprises. We will push ahead with trial reforms on mixed ownership in key fields, improve supplementary policies on employee equity stakes and other issues, accelerate reforms in general sectors of competition, and encourage private enterprises to actively participate in SOE reform. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will remain committed to strengthening, expanding, and increasing the returns on state capital, and press ahead with the strategic reorganization of the state-owned sector of the economy to improve its layout. To more quickly shift the focus of oversight from enterprises to capital, we will establish a number of state capital investment companies through reorganizations as well as a number of state capital management companies, and see that better results are achieved in the trial reforms on state capital investment and management companies. We will conduct research on expanding the scope of the state capital operations budget, and raise the proportion of funds allocated from this budget to the general public budget. We will continue the work of transferring a portion of state capital into social security funds in tranches. We will push forward the reform on improving the salary-setting mechanisms of SOEs.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是深化重点行业改革。深化石油天然气体制改革,组建国家石油天然气管网公司,实现管输和销售分开。放开油气勘查开采准入限制,积极吸引社会资本加大油气勘查开采力度。深化电力体制改革,推动交易机构独立规范运行,加快推进电力市场化交易,稳步推进电力现货市场建设试点,扩大增量配电业务改革试点。在加强成本监审调查基础上,深入推进第二个监管周期输配电价改革,继续推进石油、天然气、交通运输等重点领域价格改革。深化邮政和烟草体制改革。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will deepen reform in key industries. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will carry out structural reform of the petroleum and natural gas industries, and establish a national oil and gas pipeline corporation so as to separate transportation and marketing. We will lift restrictions on access to petroleum and natural gas exploration and exploitation, and actively encourage private investors to step up exploration and exploitation activities. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will promote further reform of the electricity industry, and support independent and procedure-based operations by electricity trading agencies. We will move swiftly in making electricity transactions market-based, steadily establish pilot markets for spot trading of electricity, and expand trial reforms on raising the number of electricity distributors. We will make further strides in reforming electricity transmission and distribution pricing during the second regulatory period, which will be based on cost monitoring, review, and investigation.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will make more progress in price reforms in key sectors such as petroleum, natural gas, and transportation, and further structural reforms of postal services and the tobacco industry.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是优化要素市场化配置。制定关于完善要素市场化配置的意见,健全要素市场准入、监管、退出制度。深入推进人力资源市场建设,促进人力资源自由有序流动。完善投融资体制机制,加快投融资服务引导转型,持续规范简化投资审批,深化企业投资项目承诺制改革。扩大国有土地有偿使用范围,深化工业用地市场化配置改革试点,推进工业用地一级市场多种方式出让和二级市场有序流转,进一步深入推进农村集体经营性建设用地入市。推进公共资源交易平台整合共享。深化技术要素市场化配置,探索职务科技成果产权制度改革。推进数据信息要素市场化配置,完善个人信息授权和大数据交易制度。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) We will optimize the market-based mechanisms for allocating factors of production. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will formulate guidelines on improving market-based allocation of factors of production, and improve systems for accessing, regulating, and exiting the market. We will do more to develop human resources markets and to promote free and orderly flows of human resources. To refine investment and financing systems and mechanisms, we will work faster to guide the transformation of investment and financing services, continue to standardize and streamline investment approval procedures, and deepen the reform to introduce a business-invested project commitment system. 


                                                                                                                                                                            To expand the paid use of state-owned land, we will push ahead the pilot reform for allowing the market to allocate land designated for industrial purposes, promote the sale of such land through various means in the primary market and the orderly transfer of its use rights in the secondary market, and move forward with the marketization of rural collective land designated for business-related construction. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will proceed with the integration and sharing of trading platforms for public resources. We will promote market-based allocation of technologies, and make explorations on reform of the system for property rights of scientific and technological outputs produced on the job. We will push ahead with market-based allocation of data and information, and improve the system for personal information authorization and big data trading.


                                                                                                                                                                            五是深化财税金融体制改革。制定应急救援、自然资源等领域中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革方案。健全地方税体系,推进中央和地方收入划分改革,全面实施预算绩效管理。深化增值税改革,逐步建立期末留抵退税制度。在上海证券交易所设立科创板并试点注册制,健全上市公司股份回购制度,进一步完善上市公司现金分红和退出机制。健全货币政策和宏观审慎政策双支柱调控框架,将更多金融活动、金融市场、金融机构和金融基础设施纳入宏观审慎政策框架。完善全口径外债和跨境资本监管体系。改革完善地方金融监管体制,坚决打击非法金融机构和非法金融活动。



                                                                                                                                                                            5) We will deepen the fiscal, tax, and financial reforms. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will draw up reform plans for appropriately dividing fiscal authority and spending responsibilities between the central and local governments in such fields as emergency rescue and natural resources. We will improve local tax systems, reform the practice of revenue sharing between the central and local governments, and implement performance-based budgetary management across the board. We will deepen VAT reform, and phase in a system to refund end-of-tax-period VAT credits. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will set up a Science and Technology Innovation Board at Shanghai Stock Exchange and launch trials for a registration-based IPO system. For listed companies, we will improve the share repurchase system and refine the cash dividend mechanism and delisting system. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will improve the regulatory framework underpinned by monetary and macro-prudential policies, and bring more financial activities, markets, institutions, and infrastructure into the macro-prudential policy framework. Improvements will be made to the systems for unified monitoring and management of foreign debt and cross-border capital. Reforms will be carried out to refine the local financial regulatory system, and steps will be taken to crack down on illegal financial institutions and activities.


                                                                                                                                                                            (六)推进更高水平对外开放。扎实推进共建“一带一路”,在更深层次、更宽领域、以更大力度推进全方位高水平开放。



                                                                                                                                                                            6. Pursuing higher-level opening up


                                                                                                                                                                            We will step up cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative, and pursue high-standard, all-round opening up in more sectors and in a more thorough fashion.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是深入推进“一带一路”国际合作。办好第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛。加强我国与沿线国家的发展规划对接。以基础设施等重大项目建设和产能合作为重点,解决好金融支撑、投资环境、风险管控、安全保障等关键问题,加强文化交流与人才合作,确保更多合作成果落地。深入推进数字丝绸之路建设合作,推动中国-东盟智慧城市网络合作。高质量建设境外经贸合作区、产能合作园区等平台。推动中欧班列高质量发展,加快“丝路电商”全球布局。务实推进与法国、德国、日本、新加坡等国家第三方市场合作和创新合作,积极推进与太平洋岛国的经贸、旅游等务实合作。加快沿边开发开放步伐,推动沿边重点开发开放试验区和跨境经济合作区建设。支持东北地区打造我国向北开放的重要窗口和东北亚地区合作的中心枢纽。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will promote international cooperation under the BRI. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will ensure the success of the second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation to be held this year. We will seek coordination between China's development plans and those of other countries along the BRI routes. Focusing on major projects, including infrastructure construction, and industrial-capacity cooperation, we will address key problems such as those related to financial support, investment environments, risk management, and security, strengthen cultural exchanges and cooperation on personnel training, and ensure cooperation produces more results. We will promote greater cooperation on the development of the Digital Silk Road and advance cooperation between China and ASEAN on creating a smart cities network. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will build high-quality overseas platforms such as economic and trade cooperation zones and industrial-capacity cooperation parks and zones. We will promote high-quality development of China-Europe freight train services, and work to promote Silk Road E-Commerce across the globe. We will take substantive strides with France, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and other countries on third-market cooperation and innovation cooperation, and we will vigorously promote cooperation with Pacific island countries on the economy, trade, and tourism. 


                                                                                                                                                                            To accelerate their development and opening up, we will see that border areas move forward with the construction of key experimental development and opening up zones and cross-border economic cooperation zones. We will support Northeast China to develop itself as a major window for northward opening up and a hub for cooperation with Northeast Asia.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是着力稳外贸。进一步压缩整体通关时间,降低进出口合规成本,大力推进“经认证的经营者”(AEO)国际互认合作,提升贸易便利化水平。加大对出口信用保险保单融资、出口退税账户质押融资等政策支持力度,推动出口市场多元化。办好第二届中国国际进口博览会,增加先进技术设备、关键零部件以及短缺的能源资源、农产品进口,促进对外贸易平衡发展。优化进出口结构,巩固传统竞争优势,加快培育以技术、标准、品牌、质量、服务为核心的综合竞争优势,促进服务贸易创新发展,加快服务外包转型升级,积极发展跨境电商,推动外贸向质量效益型转变。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will work for steady growth in foreign trade. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will further reduce the customs clearance time, lower compliance costs for imports and exports, and take strong steps to promote international mutual accreditation of and cooperation on Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) programs in order to further facilitate trade. We will provide greater support for policies on export credit insurance financing and export tax rebate pledged financing. We will work to diversify export markets. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will ensure the success of the second China International Import Expo this year, and increase imports of advanced technology and equipment, key parts and components, energy and resources in short supply, and agricultural products. These actions will help promote the balanced development of foreign trade. Working to optimize the import and export mix, we will consolidate traditional competitive edges, and move faster to foster our overall competitive strength with technology, standards, brands, quality, and services as core strengths. We will create new ways of promoting trade in services, step up work to transform and upgrade outsourcing services, develop cross-border e-commerce, and strive to see foreign trade develop in a quality- and performance-oriented way. 


                                                                                                                                                                            三是加大吸引外资力度。出台实施外商投资法,缩减外商投资准入负面清单,全面清理取消负面清单以外领域针对外资设置的准入限制。稳步推进金融业开放,吸引更多长期资金流入,有效发挥国际长期资本的作用。制定鼓励外商投资产业目录,扩大鼓励外商投资范围,吸引跨国公司来华投资并设立生产研发基地。健全外资项目服务机制,推动一批规模大、示范性强的重点项目落地。完善外资安全审查机制。稳步推进外债登记制管理改革,提升监管水平。推进国家级经开区、高新区等各类开发区创新提升,增强辐射带动作用。研究出台推动自贸试验区进一步扩大开放和创新发展的改革措施。增设上海自贸试验区新片区,将支持自贸试验区及全面创新改革试验区的出入境政策措施推广至全国。深入落实支持海南全面深化改革开放的各项政策举措,高质量建设全岛自贸试验区,探索建设中国特色自由贸易港。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will work harder to attract foreign investment. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will enact the Foreign Investment Law, shorten the negative list for foreign investment, and thoroughly review and remove restrictions on market access for foreign investment to sectors which are not on the list. We will steadily open the financial sector, attract greater inflows of long-term funding, and give play to the effective role of long-term international capital. We will draw up a catalog of industries for foreign investment, attract investment in a broader range of sectors, and encourage multinational companies to invest in China and set up production and R&D centers. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will improve the service mechanisms for foreign-invested projects, and work to implement a number of key, large projects that can play a strongly demonstrative role. We will refine the system for conducting security reviews of foreign investments. Steady progress will be made in reforming the foreign-debt registration system to ensure a higher level of supervision and management. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will promote innovations and upgrading in all types of development zones, including state-level economic development zones and high-tech development zones, to give better play to their role of leading development. Reform measures will be devised to support pilot free trade zones in opening wider and pursuing innovation-driven development. We will see an expansion of the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, and support the nationwide application of entry and exit policies developed in pilot free trade zones and pilot reform zones for comprehensive innovation. We will fully implement policies and measures on supporting Hainan in furthering its reform and opening up on every front, work for the high-quality development of China (Hainan) Pilot Free Trade Zone, and make explorations on setting up free trade ports with Chinese features.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是促进对外投资平稳健康发展。加快制定境外投资条例,完善境外投资服务和监管。推动企业加强合规管理,规范企业境外经营秩序,实行守信联合激励和失信联合惩戒。加强“走出去”公共服务平台建设,建立部门间信息统一归集和共享机制。推进安全风险防范体系建设,全面提高境外安全保障和应对风险能力。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) We will promote the steady and sound development of outward investment. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will accelerate the work on formulating the Regulations on Outward Investment, and improve services for and regulation of outward investment. We will promote stronger compliance management among enterprises to ensure their overseas operations are run in a standardized and orderly manner, and give joint incentives to those that act in good faith and take joint punitive actions against those that act in bad faith. We will enhance the building of public service platforms for companies that "go global," and establish a unified, inter-departmental information collection and sharing system. We will work to strengthen the prevention and control system for security risks and raise our overall capacity to safeguard Chinese security and respond to risks overseas.


                                                                                                                                                                            五是积极参与国际经贸规则变革完善。积极发展全球伙伴关系,充分利用国际平台加强政策协调,扩大同各国的利益交汇点。积极参与世界贸易组织改革,坚定维护多边贸易体制,主动参与多边贸易规则制定,推动构建公正、合理、透明的国际经贸规则体系,维护支持贸易投资自由化便利化的合作方向。落实阿根廷中美元首会晤共识,稳妥推动中美经贸磋商。推动早日达成区域全面经济伙伴关系协定,加快中欧投资协定谈判和中日韩自由贸易区谈判进程。



                                                                                                                                                                            5) We will play an active role in the reform and improvement of international trade rules. 


                                                                                                                                                                            China will be proactive about developing global partnerships, make full use of international platforms to enhance policy coordination, and expand converging interests with other countries. We will actively take part in reform of the WTO, firmly uphold the multilateral trading regime, play a positive role in the formulation of multilateral trade rules, and promote the establishment of a fair, reasonable, and transparent system of international trade rules. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will keep cooperation oriented toward supporting the liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment. We will act on the consensus reached by the Chinese and US presidents in Argentina, and take appropriate steps to advance the China-US trade talks. We will work to realize the adoption of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement as soon as possible, and accelerate negotiations on investment agreements with the European Union and on establishing the China-Japan-RoK Free Trade Area.


                                                                                                                                                                            (七)促进城乡区域协调发展。围绕解决发展不平衡不充分问题,推动乡村振兴和区域发展重大战略落地见效,着力提升新型城镇化质量,缩小城乡区域发展差距。



                                                                                                                                                                            7. Promoting coordinated urban-rural and regional development


                                                                                                                                                                            Targeting the problems of unbalanced and inadequate development, we will ensure effective implementation of the strategies of rural revitalization and coordinated regional development, improve the quality of new urbanization, and narrow the disparities in development between rural and urban areas and between regions.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是持续推进乡村振兴战略。落实农业农村优先发展总方针,积极推动乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)各项任务落地。加快编制村庄规划,推进农村基础设施和公共服务提挡升级,健全多元投入机制,促进路水电气信等城乡基础设施一体规划、互联互通,推动公共服务向农村延伸、社会事业向农村覆盖。大力支持农村饮水安全巩固提升等工程建设。抓好农村人居环境整治三年行动,重点推进“厕所革命”,做好农村生活垃圾污水治理,推动垃圾分类和资源化利用,建设美丽乡村。加快推进农村水土流失综合治理,实施生态清洁小流域建设。完善县乡村物流基础设施网络,加强农产品物流骨干网络和冷链物流体系建设,促进重要市政设施城乡共用。实施村庄基础设施建设工程,新建改建农村公路20万公里。全面深化农村改革,深化农村土地征收制度改革,稳慎推进农村宅基地制度改革,推进房地一体的农村集体建设用地和宅基地使用权确权登记颁证,加快盘活利用闲置宅基地和闲置农房,推进农村集体产权制度改革。深化农垦改革发展。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will continue with the rural revitalization strategy. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Following the general principle of prioritizing agricultural and rural development, we will make good strides in completing the tasks in the Strategic Agenda for Rural Revitalization (2018-2022). We will accelerate the work on formulating village development plans, promote the upgrading of infrastructure and public services in rural areas, refine the diversified investment mechanism, and work toward integrated planning and connectivity for road, water, power, gas, and information infrastructure in urban and rural areas. Public services will cover more villages, and social programs will cover all rural areas. More support will be given to projects to build on the progress made in ensuring safe drinking water in rural areas. We will ensure good results in the three-year campaign to improve rural living environments, putting a focus on advancing the Toilet Revolution, and working to efficiently treat household waste and sewage, promote the sorting and recycling of rural waste, and make our villages beautiful. We will step up efforts to comprehensively tackle soil erosion in rural areas and ensure small water basins are ecologically clean. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will improve the infrastructure networks for logistics that cover counties, townships, and villages, speed up the building of backbone logistics networks and cold-chain logistics facilities for agricultural products, and promote the sharing of major municipal facilities between urban and rural areas. We will launch projects to improve village infrastructure, and build or upgrade 200,000 kilometers of rural roads.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will deepen rural reforms on all fronts. We will push ahead reform on the rural land requisition system, advance the reform on rural land designated for housing in a steady, prudent manner, and continue the determination, registration, and certification of integrated housing ownership and land-use rights for rural collective land designated for construction and for rural land designated for housing. We will work quickly to put to good use idle land designated for housing and vacant dwellings, further reform the rural collective property rights system, and advance the reform of state farms on reclaimed land.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是扎实推进以人为核心的新型城镇化。建立健全城乡融合发展体制机制和政策体系,推进城乡融合发展。推动落实1亿非户籍人口在城市落户目标,加快推进户籍制度改革,推进租赁房屋的常住人口在城市公共户口落户。加快城市群一体化体制机制建设,增强中心城市辐射带动力,加强交通设施联通,优化产业布局。持续提升城市品质,推进城区老工业区、城镇人口密集区危险化学品生产企业等搬迁改造,有序推动城市老旧小区改造,支持加装电梯和无障碍环境建设,积极打造新型智慧城市,推进地下综合管廊、海绵城市和城市排水防涝设施建设。规范有序建设特色小镇。加快建立多元可持续的城镇化资金保障机制。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will make solid progress in people-centered new urbanization. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will set up robust institutions, mechanisms, and policy systems to promote integrated urban-rural development. Working toward the goal of granting urban residency to 100 million people, we will move faster to reform the household registration system, and allow permanent residents renting accommodation to register under the public residency category in cities.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will accelerate the building of institutions and mechanisms for integrated growth in city clusters, and boost the role of principal cities in driving the development of surrounding areas by enhancing transportation connectivity and improving the layout of industries.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will make consistent efforts to improve urban environments. We will move forward work on relocating and renovating old urban industrial areas and hazardous chemical plants located in densely-populated districts, and upgrade old residential quarters in an orderly way. We will encourage the installation of elevators in old residential buildings, and support efforts to develop a barrier-free environment for people with disabilities. We will actively foster new types of smart cities, and develop utility tunnels, sponge cities, and urban drainage and rainwater control facilities. We will encourage the well-regulated and well-ordered development of towns with distinctive features, and put in place diversified and sustainable funding mechanisms for urbanization.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是着力推动区域协调发展。制定西部开发开放新的政策措施,推进西部大开发形成新格局,推动西部地区生态环境、营商环境、开放环境、创新环境明显改善。支持东北地区深化改革创新推动高质量发展,加快落实优化营商环境、深化国企改革、促进民营经济发展等政策举措。支持中部地区发挥优势,夯实制造业基础,有力有序承接国内外产业转移。支持中西部和东北地区建设科技成果转移转化示范区。推进实施淮河生态经济带发展规划。加大力度支持革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区加快发展,深入实施兴边富民行动,积极促进资源型地区经济转型发展。推动国家级新区高质量发展,积极推动和支持临空经济示范区、自主创新示范区等平台建设。制定坚持陆海统筹、加快建设海洋强国政策及规划,推动海洋经济高质量发展。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will make progress in coordinated regional development. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will formulate new policies and measures for development and opening up in the western region and work to create a new pattern of large-scale development in the region. Marked improvements will be made to the region's ecological environment as well as its environments for doing business, opening up, and innovating. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will support northeast China in deepening reform and innovation and pursuing high-quality development and move faster to enact policies and measures to enhance the local business environment, reform SOEs, and boost the private sector. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will support the central region to harness local strengths in consolidating the foundation of the manufacturing sector and accommodating industries relocated from other parts of China and abroad in an effective and orderly manner. We will support the central and western regions and northeast China in building demonstration zones for the transfer and commercialization of advances in science and technology. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will push forward implementation of the development plan for the Huai River Eco-Economic Belt. We will give stronger support to see faster development in old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, border areas, and poor areas, boost development and improve living standards in border regions, and promote economic transformation and development in resource-dependent areas.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will promote high-quality development of state-level new areas, and actively work to support the construction of airport economy demonstration zones, innovation demonstration zones, and other platforms.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will formulate policies and plans on coordinating land and marine development and building China into a strong maritime country, and ensure high-quality development of the maritime economy.


                                                                                                                                                                            四是深入实施国家重大区域战略。促进京津冀协同发展,积极稳妥有序推进北京非首都功能疏解,出台实施雄安新区相关规划及改革开放配套实施方案,推进交通、生态、公共服务等基础设施项目建设,持续推动北京城市副中心建设,建好首都水源涵养功能区与生态环境支撑区。深入推动长江经济带发展,按照统筹山水林田湖草系统治理的思路,扎实推进“三水共治”和生态环境治理“4+1”工程,发挥铁路、公路、水运各自优势整体设计综合运输体系。将长江三角洲区域一体化发展上升为国家战略,制定实施发展规划纲要。编制粤港澳大湾区产业发展、基础设施、生态环境等专项规划,支持深圳前海、广州南沙、珠海横琴等粤港澳合作发展平台建设。



                                                                                                                                                                            4) We will continue implementing major national strategies for regional development. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Pursuing coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, we will continue relieving Beijing of functions non-essential to its role as China's capital in a proactive, prudent, and orderly manner; formulate development plans on the Xiongan New Area and supplementary guidelines on its reform and opening up; move forward with infrastructure projects on transportation, ecology, and public services; continue the construction of Beijing's administrative center in Tongzhou; and effectively develop zones for water source conservation and ecosystem and environment support for the capital.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will advance the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt. In line with a holistic approach to the conservation of mountain, water, forest, farmland, lake, and grassland ecosystems, we will take solid steps to employ the three-fold approach of controlling water pollution, restoring water ecosystems, and conserving water resources, and the "4+1" project on treating urban sewage and garbage and curbing pollution from the chemicals industry, ships, agricultural non-point sources, and tailing sites. We will give play to the advantages of railways, highways, and water transportation in developing an integrated transportation system. In addition, we will upgrade the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta to a national strategy and formulate a development plan to this end.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will draw up plans on industrial development, infrastructure, and ecological conservation and environmental protection for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and support the development of Shenzhen's Qianhai, Guangzhou's Nansha, and Zhuhai's Hengqin as platforms for cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao.


                                                                                                                                                                            (八)切实保障和改善民生。坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,突出保基本兜底线,精心做好各项民生工作,实施好更具有普惠性和可持续性的社会政策。



                                                                                                                                                                            8. Ensuring and improving people's wellbeing


                                                                                                                                                                            Acting on the people-centered philosophy of development, we will ensure people's basic needs are met, do well the job of improving living standards, and introduce social policies that are more inclusive and sustainable.


                                                                                                                                                                            一是扎实做好就业优先工作。加强对美贸易重点企业用工监测,完善风险应对预案,落实好受影响企业的援企稳岗等措施。扎实做好高校毕业生、退役军人、农民工等重点群体就业工作,加强对城镇各类就业困难人员的就业帮扶。深入实施高校毕业生就业创业促进计划和基层成长计划,启动实施三年百万青年见习计划。加强对灵活就业、新就业形态的支持,鼓励各地加快建设创业孵化载体,深入推进返乡创业试点示范。不断健全职业技能培训制度,加快推行终身职业技能培训制度。健全技术工人职业发展机制。组织实施公共职业技能培训基础平台建设行动方案。加快产教融合实训基地建设。大力弘扬工匠精神,积极推行企业新型学徒制。推进农民工职业技能提升计划等专项培训。继续实施阶段性降低失业保险费率政策,实质性扩大失业保险基金稳就业支出,全面落实失业保险基金稳岗返还政策。实施职业技能提升行动,从失业保险基金结余中拿出1000亿元,用于1500万人次以上的职工技能提升和转岗转业培训。支持困难企业开展职工在岗培训,加强失业人员职业技能培训或创业培训。对招用农村贫困人口、城镇登记失业半年以上人员的各类企业,三年内给予定额税费减免。加大对残疾人等就业困难人群帮扶力度,确保零就业家庭动态清零。



                                                                                                                                                                            1) We will put employment first. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will step up monitoring of the employment situation in major enterprises involved in the trade with the US, and set up sound contingency plans and take solid steps to support affected enterprises in keeping employment stable. We will carry out solid work on increasing employment for key groups such as college graduates, demobilized military personnel, and rural migrant workers, and provide stronger employment support for all types of urban residents having difficulty finding employment.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue the initiatives to help college graduates find jobs, guide them in starting businesses, and encourage them to work at community level. A three-year program will be launched to provide internships for 1 million unemployed young people. We will increase support for flexible and new forms of employment, promote the establishment of business incubators across the country, and continue the pilot and demonstration programs on supporting rural migrant workers and others returning home to start businesses.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will improve the vocational skills training system, and move faster to roll out a system for life-long training. Sound professional development mechanisms for skilled workers will be set up. We will begin work on implementing the action plan on building a basic platform for public vocational training, and move quickly to construct training centers for integrating vocational education with industry. We will keep working to foster a craftsmanship spirit, and introduce a new corporate apprenticeship model. We will promote specialized training programs to help migrant workers improve their skills. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue implementing the time-limited policy of reducing unemployment insurance premiums, substantially expand the scope of expenditures from unemployment insurance funds to ensure employment, and fully enforce the policy of refunding unemployment insurance premiums to help enterprises maintain stable employment. To implement vocational skills training initiatives, 100 billion yuan will be allocated from the balance of unemployment insurance funds for no less than 15 million places on training courses to improve vocational skills and provide reemployment training. We will support enterprises facing difficulties in providing on-the-job training, and give better training in professional skills and business startup to unemployed workers.


                                                                                                                                                                            All types of enterprises that hire staff who are from rural poor populations or on the urban unemployment register for a minimum period of six months, will be eligible for fixed tax and fee deductions for three years. We will increase support to people with disabilities and others having difficulty finding jobs, and eliminate the phenomenon of zero-employment families.


                                                                                                                                                                            二是进一步完善社会保障制度和政策。统筹推进多层次社会保障体系建设,推进以国家政务服务平台为统一入口的社会保险公共服务平台建设。研究制定建立退休人员基本养老金合理调整机制。推进贫困人口基本养老保险制度全覆盖。落实企业职工基本养老保险基金中央调剂制度,加快完善养老保险省级统筹,落实降低社会保险费率相关工作。全面推进建立统一的城乡居民基本医疗保险和大病保险制度。扩大长期护理保险制度试点。加强医疗保障基金监管。进一步推进跨省异地就医直接结算。完善农村低保制度,健全低保对象认定办法。完善失业保险制度,研究解决新业态从业人员中无工作单位人员的职业伤害保障问题。落实特困人员救助供养制度,加大临时救助力度,优化救助方式和审核审批程序,认真执行社会救助和保障标准与物价上涨挂钩联动机制。持续开展农村危房改造,继续做好棚户区改造工作,进一步规范发展公租房。



                                                                                                                                                                            2) We will improve the system and policies for social security. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will fully establish a multi-tiered social security system, and set up a social insurance public services platform, which is accessible through the national government service portal. We will work on establishing a mechanism for rational adjustments to basic pension benefits for retirees. We will make progress toward ensuring all people in poverty are covered under the basic old-age insurance scheme. We will implement the central regulation system for enterprise employees' basic old-age insurance funds, move faster to improve unified management of old-age insurance funds at the provincial level, and take steps to ensure reductions in social insurance premiums. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will take comprehensive moves to establish unified basic medical insurance and major disease insurance systems for rural and non-working urban residents. We will carry out trials for long-term care insurance schemes. We will tighten supervision over and management of medical insurance funds, and further improve the mechanism for trans-provincial on-the-spot settlement of medical bills via medical insurance accounts.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will improve the system of subsistence allowances for rural residents, and modify the methods for determining eligibility. We will improve the unemployment insurance system, and work to resolve the problem of work-related injury insurance for people without fixed employers working in new forms of business. We will provide assistance and basic necessities to people in extreme poverty, increase temporary assistance, and improve assistance provision methods and the related review and approval procedures, and continue the practice of increasing social security assistance and benefit payments in step with price increases.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue the renovation of dilapidated rural houses and run-down urban areas, and continue to develop public rental housing in a well-regulated manner.


                                                                                                                                                                            三是深入推进公共服务补短板强弱项提质量。制定国家基本公共服务标准,推动各地区各领域标准规范做好衔接,实施社会领域公共服务补短板、强弱项、提质量行动方案。出台实施促进3岁以下婴幼儿照护服务发展的指导意见,着力增加托育服务有效供给。坚持教育优先发展。积极支持优质普惠学前教育资源扩容建设,坚持公办民办并举,在持续办好公办幼儿园的同时,引导社会力量多举办普惠性幼儿园,加快完善普惠性民办幼儿园认定标准、补助标准及扶持政策。继续推进城乡义务教育一体化发展,深入实施高中阶段教育普及攻坚计划,积极消除城镇中小学“大班额”。持续改善贫困地区学校基本办学条件,加大对农村贫困地区儿童早期发展的支持力度,强化农村和贫困地区控辍保学工作,加强乡村教师队伍建设。依法支持民办教育发展。科学稳妥推进民族地区双语教育。发展现代职业教育,改革高职院校考试招生办法、办学体制和育人机制,支持企业和社会力量兴办职业教育,加快学历证书和职业技能等级证书互通衔接。加快“双一流”建设,促进高等教育内涵式发展。实施好教育现代化推进工程。2019年,九年义务教育巩固率预期达到94.6%,高中阶段教育毛入学率预期达到89.4%,高职院校扩招100万人,普通高等教育本专科招生预期达到870万人,研究生招生预期达到93.3万人。深化医药卫生体制改革。积极推动建立分级诊疗制度、现代医院管理制度、全民医疗保障、药品供应保障、医疗卫生行业综合监管五项制度。发展“互联网+医疗健康”,加快建立远程医疗服务体系。稳步推进区域医疗中心规划建设,加强乡村医生队伍建设。加强重大疾病防治,继续实施疑难病症诊治能力提升和中医药传承创新工程。加快儿童药物研发。加强罕见病用药保障。深化医保支付方式改革,优化医保支出结构。坚持预防为主,加强公共卫生服务、职业病和地方病防治能力建设。抓好青少年近视防治。完善生育配套政策。加快完善疫苗药品监管长效机制。进一步加强医德医风建设和医疗卫生领域失信治理。开展社会办医示范行动,制定促进健康产业高质量发展行动纲要。加强居民身心健康教育和自我健康管理。加强城乡养老设施建设,积极引导民间资本和外资进入养老服务业,大力发展养老特别是社区养老服务业。推进实施社会服务兜底工程,提升老年人、残疾人、困境儿童、农村留守儿童、精神障碍患者等困难群体服务设施建设水平。切实加强妇女、未成年人、残疾人等社会群体权益保护。启动实施积极应对人口老龄化中长期规划。推动大运河文化带建设,积极推进平安故宫、国家美术馆、中国工艺美术馆、国家图书馆国家文献战略储备库等重大文化项目建设。深入推进中华优秀传统文化传承发展,加强文物保护利用改革和历史文化遗迹保护修复。繁荣发展哲学社会科学,建好中国特色新型智库。倡导全民阅读。大力推进实施全国红色旅游经典景区三期总体建设方案。推动冬奥会场馆建设,加大体育设施建设力度。办好2019年北京世界园艺博览会。严格落实安全生产责任制,完善安全监管体制,抓好食品药品、交通等安全。



                                                                                                                                                                            3) We will work hard to address inadequacies in public services, shore up points of weakness, and boost service quality.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will formulate national standards for basic public services, promote greater cohesion in the standards and norms of different regions and sectors, and carry out an action plan to address inadequacies in public services, shore up points of weakness, and improve service quality.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will issue the guidelines on promoting development of care services for children under three and ensure more effective supply of childcare. Top priority will be given to education. We will support efforts to make high-quality, public-interest preschool educational resources more broadly available, and support both public and privately-run kindergartens. While ensuring sound development of public kindergartens, we will encourage private entities to operate more public-interest kindergartens, and move quickly to set sound standards for accrediting private public-interest kindergartens, as well as subsidies and supportive policies for such kindergartens. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will continue pushing for integrated development of compulsory education in urban and rural areas, intensify efforts to universalize senior secondary education, and endeavor to put an end to big class sizes in urban primary and secondary schools. We will continue to improve the basic conditions of schools in poor areas, increase support for early education for children in poor rural areas, work on reducing the drop-out rate in rural and poor areas, and foster a stronger workforce of teachers in rural education. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will support the development of privately-run schools in accordance with the law. We will promote bilingual education in areas with large ethnic minority populations in a systematic and steady manner. In our efforts to develop modern vocational education, we will reform the enrolment procedures, operational mechanisms, and teaching methods of vocational colleges, support enterprises and private actors' participation in running vocational schools, and speed up work to align vocational technical grade certificates with academic credentials. We will accelerate the development of world-class universities and disciplines, and encourage universities to pursue intensive development. We will ensure progress in initiatives to modernize Chinese education.


                                                                                                                                                                            In 2019, the retention rate of nine-year compulsory education is expected to reach 94.6%, the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education is expected to reach 89.4%, the number of students enrolled in vocational colleges will grow by 1 million, and regular institutions of higher learning are projected to enroll 8.7 million undergraduate students and 933,000 graduate students.


                                                                                                                                                                            Reform of the medical and health care system will be deepened. We will make a concerted push to establish the five systems of tiered diagnosis and treatment, modern hospital management, universal health insurance, medicine supplies, and comprehensive healthcare oversight. We will develop Internet Plus Healthcare models, and quickly establish a telemedicine service system. We will make steady progress in planning and building regional medical centers, and build up the ranks of rural doctors. We will step up prevention and treatment of major diseases, and continue the projects on enhancing China's ability to diagnose and treat difficult and complicated diseases and on preserving and making new advances in traditional Chinese medicine. R&D on pediatric medications will advance at a faster pace, and the supply of medicines for rare diseases will be better guaranteed. Reform of medical insurance payouts will be furthered, and their composition will be improved. With the emphasis on prevention, we will enhance our capacity to provide public health services and to prevent and treat occupational and endemic diseases. Effective measures will be taken to prevent and control myopia among teenagers; and supplementary childbirth policies will be improved. We will redouble our efforts to improve the long-term mechanism for supervision over vaccines and drugs, and intensify work on strengthening professional ethics and work practices and addressing failures to act in good faith in the healthcare sector. We will take actions to develop model private hospitals, and formulate an action plan on promoting high-quality development of the health industry. We will step up public education on physical and mental health and the management of personal health. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will take stronger steps to develop urban and rural elderly care facilities, encourage the investment of private and foreign capital in elderly care services, and make a big push to develop elderly care services, particularly at the community level. We will ensure the provision of social services to those most in need, and upgrade service facilities for the elderly, people with disabilities, children living in difficulties, children remaining in rural areas while their parents work in cities, people with mental illness, and other vulnerable groups. We will do more to protect the rights and interests of women, minors, people with disabilities, and other groups. The medium- and long-term plan on population aging will be issued for implementation.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will develop the Grand Canal cultural belt, and move ahead with major cultural projects such as the restoration and conservation of the Palace Museum, the National Art Museum of China, the China National Arts and Crafts Museum, and the National Library's national archive of strategically important documents. We will do more to see that fine traditional Chinese culture is preserved and carried forward. We will carry out reforms to ensure that China's cultural relics are effectively protected and put to proper use, and step up the protection and restoration of historical and cultural heritage sites. We will see that philosophy and the social sciences flourish, and develop new types of distinctively Chinese think tanks. We will foster a love of reading in our people. 


                                                                                                                                                                            We will support the implementation of phase three of the national general plan for the development of symbolic sites important in early CPC history. We will move forward with the construction of venues for the 2022 Winter Olympics and other sports facilities. We will ensure the success of the International Horticultural Exhibition 2019, Beijing.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will strictly enforce the accountability system for workplace safety, improve safety-related oversight institutions, and enhance food, drug, and traffic safety.


                                                                                                                                                                            进一步支持香港、澳门融入国家发展大局,加快推进粤港澳大湾区规划建设,实施好港澳居民证件便利化、进一步便利港澳居民到内地创业就业、降低粤港澳通信漫游费用等政策措施。支持香港、澳门参与国家经济高质量发展和新一轮高水平开放,努力把香港、澳门打造成国家双向开放的重要区域。支持香港提升国际金融、航运、贸易中心地位,促进香港同内地加强科技合作,支持香港建设国际创新科技中心。支持澳门加强世界旅游休闲中心、中葡商贸合作服务平台建设,打造中医药科技产业发展平台,支持澳门打造以中华文化为主流、多元文化共存的交流合作基地。扩大海峡两岸交流合作、深化两岸融合发展,持续落实促进两岸经济文化交流合作的31条措施,推出更多惠及台湾同胞的政策措施,为台胞台企在大陆实现更好发展创造条件。



                                                                                                                                                                            We will give more support to Hong Kong and Macao in integrating themselves into the overall development of the country, and accelerate the planning and development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. We will carry out policies and measures to make it easier for Hong Kong and Macao residents to apply for mainland residence permits and to pursue development on the mainland. Roaming rates in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area will be cut. We will support Hong Kong and Macao in participating in national high-quality economic development and in the new round of high-standard opening up, and strive to see them develop into important regions for China's two-way opening up.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will support Hong Kong in its efforts to raise its standing as an international financial, shipping, and trade center, promote Hong Kong's cooperation with the mainland in science and technology, and support Hong Kong in developing itself as an international center for innovation in science and technology.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will support Macao in building itself into a world tourism and leisure center, in serving as a platform for business and trade cooperation between China and Lusophone countries, in building itself as a hub for scientific and industrial development of traditional Chinese medicine, and in developing itself as an exchange and cooperation base where Chinese culture is prevalent and diverse cultures coexist.


                                                                                                                                                                            We will expand cross-Straits exchanges and cooperation, deepen integrated development between the two sides of the Straits, and continue to implement the 31 measures designed to boost cross-Straits economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation. We will bring forward more policies and measures to benefit our Taiwan compatriots and create conditions for them and their businesses to achieve better development on the mainland.


                                                                                                                                                                            各位代表,做好2019年经济社会发展工作意义重大,任务艰巨。我们要更加紧密地团结在以习近平同志为核心的党中央周围,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,自觉接受全国人大的监督,虚心听取全国政协的意见和建议,敢于担当、真抓实干,自力更生、艰苦奋斗,改革创新、攻坚克难,促进经济社会平稳健康可持续发展,以优异成绩庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年!



                                                                                                                                                                            Esteemed Deputies,


                                                                                                                                                                            Accomplishing the work for economic and social development in 2019 is both a demanding and important task. We will unite even closer around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. In line with the CPC Central Committee and the State Council's decisions and plans, we will consciously accept the oversight of the NPC, and seek comments and suggestions from the CPPCC National Committee.


                                                                                                                                                                            Let us shoulder our responsibilities, fulfill our duties, be self-reliant and hard-working, carry out reform and innovation, tackle tough issues, and promote steady, sound, and sustainable economic and social development, so as to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China with outstanding achievements.


                                                                                                                                                                            (注:本文省略了原文中的图表和专栏)



                                                                                                                                                                            (Note: Charts, tables and boxes omitted)


                                                                                                                                                                            (来源:新华网)


                                                                                                                                                                            (Source: Xinhua)


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